There were a number of conditions in Great Britian that led to the Industrial Revolution
•Improvements in agricultural practices led to an increase in food production, They could now feed more people at lower prices and less labor
•Britain also had a ready supply of capital for investment in the new industrial machines and the factories that were needed to house them
•Britain possessed an effective central bank and well-developed, flexible credit facilities
•Great Britain also possessed an abudence of important mineral resources such as coal and iron ore that were crucial to the manufacturing process
•Britain's government, too, played a significant role in the process of industrialization. Parliament contributed to the favorable business climate by providing a stable government and passing laws that protected private property.
•British exports quadrupled from 1660 to 1760. A crucial factor in Britain's successful industrialization was the ability to produce cheaply the articles in greatest demand
Changes in Textile Production
•The flying shuttle made it possible to weave faster on a loom, enabling weavers to double their output
•The one problem with the spinning shuttle was it created yarn shortages.
•James Hargreaves creating the Spinning Jenny which allowed spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities
•Edmund Cartwright created a loom powered by water in 1787
•This allowed the weaving of cloth catch up to the spinning of yarn
It was also now more efficient to bring workers to the machines and organize their labor collectively in factories located next to rivers and streams so they could power the looms
•James Watt built an engine powered by steam that could pump water from mines 3 times as quickly as the previous engines
•This pushed the cotton industry to even greater heights of productivity
•This also allowed for more coal to be extracted from the mines
•Watt developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and thus drive machinery
•The rotary engine allowed for steam power to be applied to the weaving and spinning of cotton
•Cotton mills using steam engines were multiplying across Britain. With the use of coal, the steam engines could be used anywhere.
•Cotton became Britains most important product in value
Other Technological Changes
•Henry Cort developed a system of deriving coke from coal, which was used to burn away impurities in pig iron, thus producing an iron of higher quality. This method was called puddling.
•After the invention of puddling, a boom began in the British industry.
•The new higher quality metal was used to build machines and new industries, which meant that it had to be transported in large quantities.
•Richard Trevithick created the first steam powered locomotive on an industrial rail line in Southern Wales
•The steam powered locomotive had the capability to pull 10 tons of ore and 70 people at 5 mph.
•A better version of the steam powered locomotive was created by George Stephenson called The Rocket.
•The Rocket was used on a public railway, which stretched 32 miles, from Liverpool to Manchester. It could move 16 miles an hour.
•Within 20 years, steam powered locomotives reached speeds of up to 50 mph.
•The Light Bulb was developed by Thomas Edison and Briton Joseph Swan
•The lightbulb led to better lighting in houses, streets, factories etc. Factories also started to use electricity to power machines.
•Communication became more effective with the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell.
•Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry with the mass production of the Model T using his invention, the Assembly Line
•Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing airplane.
•He believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
•At New Lanark in Scotland, he transformed a squalid factory town into a flourishing, healthy community
•Fighting within the community ruined his dream of a flourishing, healthy community