Overview of Endocrine System By: Row one

Hormone: a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.

HORMONES

Hormones can induce target cells to express specific genes

● Make more or fewer proteins

●Increase glucose uptake

●Step up or slow down secretions

●Grow, divide, and undergo apoptosis

● All in the service of programs of growth, maintenance and reproduction

Secretion from Posterior Pituitary Gland:ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

Main target: Kidney

Primary action: controls water volume and solute concentration (keeps water in body)

Steroid hormones: lipid soluble, enter the nucleus

Step 1: steroid hormone is released from the endocrine gland and travels through the bloodstream to the target cell

Step 2: steroid diffuses through the plasma membrane

Step 3: steroid diffuses through the nuclear membrane

Step 4: hormone binds with receptor and transcription of a gene is triggered

Step 5: newly formed RNA is moved to the cytoplasm, protein with function is formed

Peptide hormones: do not enter the plasma membrane/nucleus

Step 1: peptide hormone is released from the endocrine gland and travels through the bloodstream to the target cell

Step 2: peptide hormone binds with a receptor on outside of cell, which triggers a chemical reaction (cAMP to ATP)

Step 3: cAMP activates another process

Step 4: activation hinders another process- inhibition of glycogen synthesis

Step 5: activation may aid a different process- breakdown of glycogen

The hypothalamus interacts with the pituitary gland as a major integrating center

Together they control the activities of many other organs including other endocrine glands

The pituitary gland and hypothalamus interact closely as a major neural-endocrine control center

Under normal conditions the body produces very calculated amounts of hormones

Some pituitary disorders are gigantism, pituitary dwarfism, and acromegaly.

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