First rock, Igneous. They are formed by solidification
There are two different types of Igneous rocks.
First, Intrusive, which form under the crust and from solidified magma.
Second, Extrusive, which form above the crust with solidified lava.
Now lets talk about sedimentary rocks.
There are 3 different forms of sedimentary:
Clastic - formed by compaction and cementation.
crystalline, when minerals in water stay and the water evaporates, leaving the rock behind.
Finally, bioclastic, which form from once living things.
Finally, Let's talk about metamorphic rocks.
Metamorphic rocks form when either Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks or even other metamorphic rocks go under extreme heat and/or pressure.
These properties are useful for identification of minerals.
The first property is hardness, which is when the mineral is scratched against some glass.
The second property is Cleavage/Fracture.