The Protestant Reformation Alyssa Primacio

The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement focusing on reforming the practices and doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church

Prior to the Reformation, the Catholic Church issued indulgences, which were things to buy to help gain salvation. There were five major issues within the Roman Catholic Church: 1. Sale of church offices. 2. Nepotism. 3. Absenteeism. 4. Uneducated priests. 5. Sale of indulgences. Men throughout the Reformation, such as Martin Luther, sought to purify the church. Spiritual teaching were relying on paintings, mosaics, and stained glass because no one could read. Ill-tempered iconoclasm began to ante. There was no emphasis on Biblical thought, there was clergy abuse, and the Catholic Church had a monopoly.

Martin Luther, a German professor, was a prominent figure in the Protestant reformation. He strongly disagreed with the practices and teaching of the Roman Catholic Church.
Martin Luther's 95 theses was written in 1517. In this document, Luther claimed that the repentance required by Christ in order for salvation was due to faith, not by works. Luther believed in a faith based salvation, not a works based one. The Theses was sent to Albert of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz on October 31, 1517; and it was also posted on the door of All Saints' Church as well as many other churches.
Luther also strongly believed in educating everyone. This was a "reformation thought" because in order to be saved, you need to yourself understand and interpret what the Bible truly says, not just believing what someone else says. Prior to Martin Luther, not many people were educated; church members believed everything the Pope preached. Many were illiterate, so there were not able to read the Bible for themselves. Because Luther thought everyone should be educated, the printing press was an invention that greatly helped his cause. The printing press vastly improved society in the form of educating people. Many Bibles were printed and that led to many people becoming saved. Due to his translating the Bible into German, allowing citizens to think for themselves, linguistic education was began by humanists.
John Calvin was an influential French theologian, pastor, and reformer during the Protestant Reformation. He addressed his institutes of the Christian religion in 1536. Constitutionalism in the church and state was brought forth by Calvin. There were limits on his personal power in Geneva. He led the way for all non-Catholic Christian religions, and helped break the protestant religion from the Catholic organization.
Dutch Calvinists denounced the tradition of gift exchanging on Christmas. There are five points of Calvinism: Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, and Perseverance of the Saints. Total depravity, in the beliefs of Calvinists, they are making an extensive, rather than an intensive statement. The effect of the Fall upon man in that sin is part of every part of man. Unconditional election is the doctrine which states that God chose who was going to heaved, not based upon any merit shown by the object of his grace and not based upon looking forward to who would "accept him". Limited Atonement is a doctrine that teaches that Christ died for the invisible church- the sum total of all those who would become a Christian. Irresistible Grace is the certain response by the elect to the inward call of the Holy Spirit, when the outward call is given by the evangelist or minister of the Word of God. Perseverance of the Saints is a doctrine which states that the saints will remain in God's hand until they are glorified and brought to abide with him in heaven.
Zwingli led Zurich to its break with Rome in 1523, he was one of the reformers who were more extreme than Luther was. He pushed to abolish all rituals in the church. He is known as the Father of reformed reformation in Switzerland and fought in many wars against Catholicism. His 67 theses were short and pointed statements summarized the gospel and listed some church reforms which should follow from it. The city council accepted his theses and became the champion of his ideas and his defender. Because of his proposals, no imagery in the church was acceptable; such as the crucifix, the bishop's crozier, etc. The Council of Trent condoned violence against Protestants, and the church reinforced it's orthodox faith.
John Knox, a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer, is the Father of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. He set the moral tone of the church of Scotland and shaped the democratic form of government that it adopted. He attacked the Catholic Church because it was "invented by the brain of man" and not commended by God. He found it important to follow what God was telling man to do in the Bible.
Politically, the citizens discovered a freedom from arbitrary governmental power in an age where options were restricting teh liberty of expression. An individual had freedom because there was a consensus based upon the absolutes given in the Bible, and therefore real values within which to have freedom without these freedoms leading to chaos. Political ideas were communicated through the many complex groups that made up the Puritan elements. The Thirty Years' War occurred and stood as a "bloodless revolution". Germany agreed to choose religion and reduced the authority in which the emperor obtained.

Some form of checks and balances was implicit in some medieval political thought. Polybian republicanism is named for Polybian, and he was a Greek who wrote a history of the growth of the Roman Republic in terms which were designed to cause his peers to accept Roman rule. Machiavelli was an economically and politically elitist. He witnessed the destruction of Florentine republicanism, and wrote The Prince.

The Reformation encourages a strong centralized and stable government with limited power for each section or branch.

Johannes Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. His music was focused on bringing glory to God, and his music was complex and full of detail as God is. His music was listened to every week in church. His principles were based off of Martin Luther's teachings.
Rembrandt was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker. He painted a numerous amount of pieces and focused on realistic aspects.

Paul Robert exhibited freedom without chaos in a mural, which he entitled Justice Lifts the Nations. He wanted to remind justices that the place which the Reformation gave to the Bible provided a basis for morals as well as law. He expresses the sociological base, and the legal base in northern Europe after the Reformation.

Martin Bucer was a leader of the Reformation in Strasbourg and important throughout all the Reformation countries. H was one of the most levelheaded and charitable Reformers and had the strongest personal influence on Calvin's deep rooted conciliatory views in church affairs at Geneva and in church-state relations.


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