Progeria also known as Hutchinso-Gilford progeria syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes children to age more rapidly than normal. It is extremely rare there is only about 1000 cases in the US per year.
The disorder is caused by a mutation in a gene called LMNA that produces the lamin A protein which is what holds the structure of the nucleus together.
Characteristics of Progeria start to surface usually around the age of two, and they include growth failure, loss of body fat and hair, as well as aged looking skin and stiff joints. They tend to develop osteoperosis, general heart disease and stroke.
Since the gene mutation has been identified they have a diagnostic testing program. After the children have an initial clinical evaluation which is looking at the child's appearance and medical records. Then a sample of the child's blood is taken and tested for Progeria.
There is really nothing you can do to treat it besides donating your time and money for research.
Progeria isn't a disorder the usually passed down through generations because it is such a rare occurence. But if a couple has had a child with progeria, they have a higher chance of having another child with progeria.