MOSCOW UNDERGROUNDTHE MOST FABULOUS METRO in the world
1st pic - this is a shoot from the stratosphere; 2nd pic - Moscow Metro map. The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki. Opened in 1935 with one 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union. As of 2017, the Moscow Metro excluding the Moscow Central Circle has 206 stations and its route length is 339.1 km (210.7 mi), making it the fifth longest in the world. The system is mostly underground, with the deepest section 84 metres (276 ft) underground at the Park Pobedy station, one of the world's deepest. It is the second busiest metro system in the world after Tokyo’s Twin Cities subway. Moscow Metro carries more then 7 million people per day!
1st pic - Soviet propaganda poster from the early 1930s: "All of Moscow is building the Metro"; 2nd pic - Russian people in Moscow metro 1937; 3rd pic - entrance to the Metro station 1938. Before the World War II were built 15 stations. Building work was delayed (but not interrupted) during World War II, and two additional Metro sections were put into service. During the Siege of Moscow in the fall and winter of 1941, Metro stations were used as air-raid shelters; the Council of Ministers moved its offices to the Mayakovskaya platforms, where Stalin made public speeches on several occasions
After the war ended in 1945 the decoration and design characteristic of the Moscow Metro is considered to have reached its zenith. The Koltsevaya Line was first planned as a line running under the Garden Ring, a wide avenue encircling the borders of Moscow's city centre. The first part of the line – from Park Kultury to Kurskaya (1950) – follows this avenue. Plans were later changed and the northern part of the ring line runs 1–1.5 kilometres (0.62–0.93 mi) outside the Sadovoye Koltso, thus providing service for seven (out of nine) rail terminals. The next part of the Koltsevaya Line opened in 1952 (Kurskaya–Belorusskaya), and in 1954 the ring line was completed.
The Moscow Metro was one of the USSR’s most ambitious architectural projects. The metro’s artists and architects worked to design a structure that embodied day light (radiance or brilliance) and bright future. With their reflective marble walls, high ceilings and grand chandeliers, many Moscow Metro stations have been likened to an "artificial underground sun". This palatial underground environment reminded riders that their taxes had been well spent on bright future.
The Metro was iconic also because it showcased Socialist Realism in public art. Socialist Realism was in fact a method, not a style. This method was influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky, Lenin’s favorite 19th-century nihilist, who stated that "art is no use unless it serves politics". It explains why the stations combined aesthetics, technology and ideology. Any plan which did not incorporate all three areas cohesively was rejected. Without this cohesion, the Metro would not reflect Socialist Realism. If the Metro did not utilize Socialist Realism, it would fail to illustrate Stalinist values and transform Soviet citizens into socialists.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, the cost of a ride was five kopecks. The fare has been steadily rising since 1991, hastened by inflation (taking into account the 1998 revaluation of the ruble by a factor of 1,000). Effective February 2017, one ride costs 55 rubles (approx. 1 US dollar). Discounts (up to 33 percent) are available when buying a multiple-trip ticket (starting with twenty-trip cards), and children under age seven can travel free with their parents.
The Moscow Metro is undergoing a major expansion, current plan call for almost 150 kilometers of new lines to be opened before 2020.
METRO - 2 - The most secret objet. Metro-2 is the informal name for a purported secret underground metro system which parallels the public Moscow Metro (known as Metro-1 when in comparison with Metro-2). The system was supposedly built, or at least started, during the time of Joseph Stalin and was codenamed D-6 by the KGB. It is supposedly still operated by the Main Directorate of Special Programs and Ministry of Defence. The length of Metro-2 is rumored to exceed that of the public Metro. It is said to have four lines, and to lie 50–200 meters (165-660 ft) deep. It is said to connect the Kremlin with the Federal Security Service (FSB) headquarters, the government airport at Vnukovo-2, and an underground town at Ramenki, in addition to other locations of national importance.