A New Revolution in Science- The ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an enormous impact on the 20th century
Impact of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity-Space and time can change when measured relative to an object moving near the speed of light about 186,000 miles per second
Influence of Freudian Psychology -Freud treated patients with psychological problems.
Literature in the 1920s-Some writers and thinkers expressed their anxieties by creating disturbing visions of the present and the future.
Revolution in the Arts- Although many of the new directions in painting and music began in the prewar period, they evolved after the war.
Airplanes Transform Travel- International air travel became an objective after the war.
Postwar Europe- In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense.
The Weimar Republic- The Weimar Republic had serious weaknesses from the start. First, Germany lacked a strong democratic tradition.
Attempts at Economic Stability- Germany recovered from the 1923 inflation thanks largely to the work of an international committee.
Financial Collapse- In the late 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy.
The Stock Market Crashes - In 1929, New York City’s Wall Street was the financial capital of the world. Banks and investment companies lined its sidewalks.
The Great Depression-People could not pay the money they owed on margin purchases. Stocks they had bought at high prices were now worthless.
The World Confronts the Crisis- The Depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis in its own way
Socialist Governments Find Solutions- The socialist governments in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis successfully.
Fascism’s Rise in Italy- Unlike communism, fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. Nevertheless, most Fascists shared several ideas.
Il Duce’s Leadership- He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists. Secret police jailed his opponents.
The Rise of the Nazis- At the end of the war, Hitler settled in Munich. In 1919, he joined a tiny right-wing political group. This group shared his belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism.
Hitler Becomes Chancellor- The Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932. Conservative leaders mistakenly believed they could control Hitler and use him for their purposes.
Hitler Makes War on the Jews- Hatred of Jews, or anti-Semitism, was a key part of Nazi ideology. Although Jews were less than one percent of the population, the Nazis used them as scapegoats for all Germany’s troubles since the war.
Other Countries Fall to Dictators- While Fascists took power in Italy and Germany, the nations formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling to dictators. By the mid-1930s, the powerful nations of the world were split into two antagonistic camps—democratic and totalitarian.
Japan Seeks an Empire-During the 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. In 1922, Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders.
Japan Invades Manchuria-Japanese businesses had invested heavily in China’s northeast province, Manchuria. It was an area rich in iron and coal. In 1931, the Japanese army seized Manchuria, despite objections from the Japanese parliament.
Japan Invades China-Four years later, a border incident touched off a full-scale war between Japan and China. Japanese forces swept into northern China. Despite having a million soldiers, China’s army led by Jiang Jieshi was no match for the better equipped and trained Japanese.
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty- Hitler had long pledged to undo the Versailles Treaty. Among its provisions, the treaty limited the size of Germany’s army. In March 1935, the Führer announced that Germany would not obey these restrictions.
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace- Instead of taking a stand against Fascist aggression in the 1930s, Britain and France repeatedly made concessions, hoping to keep peace.
The German Reich Expands- However, many Austrians supported unity with Germany. In March 1938, Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. France and Britain ignored their pledge to protect Austrian independence.
Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact- Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler’s aggression. As Stalin talked with Britain and France, he also bargained with Hitler. The two dictators reached an agreement.