If we change our source of energy to hydroelectricity or solar energy from fossil fuels(electricity), what impact would it have? Would it make any difference? Which one is better overall? Razin Ahnaf Hossain-Science period 3


First of all, mankind has been using fossil fuels for over hundred of years, to fuel our cars, to light up our homes.Now what would happen if we are to replace the great fuels that come from fossils(since it's not a renewable resource it's bound to happen someday)because clearly fossil fuel reserves are finite, it's only a matter of time until they run out.Globally, every year we consume about 11 billion tonnes of oil in fossil fuels. A rate of 4 billion tonnes of oil from crude oil reserves are disappearing, if we continue to do this without thinking about out next and growing generations and populations, our oil deposits will be gone by 2052.Also if we step up our depletion of our oil and gas reserves, the coal deposits would last as far as 2088.


Usage of coal, oil, gas, and the predicted usage in the coming years


  • Static electricity is basically an electric charge, typically produced by friction(rubbing two objects together), that causes sparks, crackling or the attraction of certain things such as dust or hair. Static electricity happens when there is an imbalance of positive or negative charges. For example friction-when you shuffle your feet across a carpet, you are creating many surface contacts between your feet and the carpet, allowing electrons to transfer to you, which then builds up a static charge on your skin. When you touch another person or an object, you can then shock someone with all that charged up static.
  • Static is also produced by conduction and Induction. Conduction occurs when a charged object is passed on to a non-charged(Neutral) object. For instance, a positively charged aluminum plate is touched to a non-charged metal sphere. The non-charged metal sphere becomes charged as the result of being contacted by the charged aluminum plate(sort of like the game of manhunt-when the person that is it, gets someone that isn't it then becomes it-which then both people are it-basically like getting the same charge). During charging by conduction, both objects acquire the same type of charge. If a negative object is used to charge a neutral object, then both objects become charged negatively. In order for the neutral sphere to become negative, it must gain electrons from the negatively charged rod.
  • Induction occurs when a charged object is so charged that the charged object doesn’t need to touch the neutral object for the transfer of electrons or protons. For instance if you rub a balloon on a carpet or wool sweater really hard and if you bring it close to hair without touching it your hair(usually straight and long) would usually be affected and lift up.The electrons transfer to the hair because they are attracted to the protons in the hair and transfers without contact.
  • An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionized gas (plasma).Current electricity flows unlike static electricity.
  • The direction of an electric current is by convention the direction in which a positive charge would move. Thus, the current in the external circuit is directed away from the positive terminal and toward the negative terminal of the battery. Electrons would actually move through the wires in the opposite directions..

Devices of Static Electricity

  • Pollution control is another example of static electricity in technology static electricity is used in pollution control by applying a static charge to dirt particles in the air and then collecting those charged particles on a plate or collector of the opposite electrical charge.In a simple way, basically what happens is opposites attract, let's say the dirt particles are negatively charged(electrons) and the plate is positively charged(protons) the negative electrons are attracted to the attractive positive electrons.Such devices are often called electrostatic precipitators. Factories use static electricity to reduce pollution coming from their smokestacks. They give the smoke an electric charge. When it passes by electrodes of the opposite charge, most of the smoke particles cling to the electrodes. This keeps the pollution from going out into the atmosphere.

Another example is air fresheners. They work on a similar principle as the pollution control. These devices strip electrons from smoke molecules, dust particles, and pollen in the air, just as what happens in creating static electricity.These charged dust and smoke particles are then attracted to and stick to a plate on the device with the opposite charge(like the example up top). After a while, much of the pollution is drawn from the air. Since charged particles will also stick to neutral surfaces, some of them can stick to the wall near the ionizer(a device that produces ionization, especially one used to improve the quality of the air in a room), making it very dirty and difficult to clean.

Painting cars is surprisingly another example of static electricity in technology. Some automobile manufacturers use static electricity to help them paint the cars they make. The way this works is that they first prepare the car's surface and then put it in a paint booth. Next, they give the paint an electrical charge and then spray a fine mist of paint into the booth. The charged paint particles are attracted to the car and stick to the body, just like a charged balloon sticks to a wall. Once the paint dries, it sticks much better to the car and is smoother because it is evenly distributed.


Fun Fact#1

An electrical conductor allows electricity to pass through. For instance if I were to rub my feet (with socks) on a carpet and then touch a doorknob, I would usually get a small spark or shock. At that moment when you rubbed your feet on the carpet you would be the electrical conductor, since you are the conductor you are charged and have either a negative or a positive charge which is an imbalance, which then you touch the doorknob which creates friction and the shock/sparks!

Fun Fact#2

If a negatively charged object is used to charge a neutral object by induction, then the neutral object will acquire a positive charge. And if a positively charged object is used to charge a neutral object by induction, then the neutral object will acquire a negative charge, the thing about induction is the first object(balloon) needs to be highly charged(negatively or positively) in order for it to affect the second object or thing without touch!

First of all, circuits are a part of our everyday lives. From your tv to your homes they are literally almost everywhere. In our homes the most common circuits are usually either series or parallel. The most common series and parallel circuits are the electrical circuits found in homes and vehicles, with the difference of the voltage of course, but usually their are more parallel circuits in a home since everything doesn’t need to rely on everything else.



A series circuit aims to have the same amount of current flow through all components placed inline. It is called a series because of how the the components are in the same single path of the current flow.

In a parallel circuit the components of it are not inline, but instead parallel to each other. This circuit splits the current flow, so all the the circuits are independent.

The main difference for series and parallel is that series circuits will break if one component, such as a resistor, burns out so the circuit wouldn't be complete(basically like how a motorcycle can't work with 1 wheel it need 2 wheels to work and drive more smoothly). In parallel circuits, the functioning of other components will still continue, as each component has its own circuit, and is independent.

Fun Fact#3

The voltage across a series circuit is the sum of the voltages across each component and in a parallel circuit the voltage across each of the components is the same!

  • Series circuits are basic types of electrical circuits in which all components are joined in a sequence so that the same current flows through all of them.
  • In series circuits, the connection or circuit will not be complete if one component in the series burns out.
  • Parallel circuits will still continue to operate, at least with other components, if one parallel-connected component burns out.
  • Lights are a good example of either parallel and or series circuits. Most times, the electrical outlets in a particular room will be on a single circuit, because the single circuit can usually handle the load of several devices. (It's rare that everything is running all at once.)
  • Within a multi-bulb light, a parallel circuit ensures that when one bulb burns out, the others still stay lit. Otherwise, you'd have all of the bulbs go out.
  • Parallel circuits are used when the current through several components need to be independant of each other.
  • Water heaters are an example of a series circuit. Power enters through the thermostat, which is a temperature control switch. When the water reaches the correct temperature, the thermostat will cut off the current to the heating element, leaving the current with no other paths to follow.
  • Another example is a lamp. Power flows from the receptacle(an electrical outlet into which the plug of an electrical device may be inserted)to the switch, through the light bulb and back to the receptacle. When the switch is turned on, current will flow to the light bulb. The current can only follow one path.
Water Heater

Importance and Connections to the Economy, Environment, and Socially

  • Static electricity is indeed important to us, for starters like the electrostatic precipitator such as the pollution control. The pollution control- from it's name helps with controlling the pollution like smoke from escaping outside(remember not always is all of the pollution captured). If we learn more about static we can begin making devices that run on static to help us with our lives. For Current, it's a big electrical source of energy for us, for example lights, and once again if we study more about current we can make more devices to help make our lives easier also for example better lights. Now the way they work has an importance on which we have been continuing for generations. If we continue to learn the way these work, it allows us as humans to grow and evolve. There is a reason why there are generations.
  • Economically, obviously all of these things(Static and Current) have costs and affects our economy in big ways. For starters the people that work with these departments are known as electricians, electric engineers. They give back to our economy. Off-peak electricity cost 3.5 cents a kilowatt hour, mid-peak power cost 7.5 cents a kilowatt hour and on-peak, when it was most in demand, was 10.5 cents a kilowatt hour. In November, 2016, are 8.7 cents, 13.2 cents and 18 cents.
  • Environmentally, the devices like pollution control help the environment from pollution from being released into the air. Which also means that the organisms would not be affected too. Static doesn't really affect the environment while it's brother current electricity is the production of electricity of which that comes from fossil fuels. Which means production of pollution specifically air. All organisms are affected by air pollution in a bad way, from health affects to environmental effects. Acid rain is a big example of environmental effects as it contains harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. For health effects we can be receive things, like emphysema to cancer. Also let's not forget how much land is taken due to the mining.
  • Socially, people can be happy to angry from the various forms and works of electricity, for example I have amazing electricity-everything runs smoothly-everything is perfect, while my neighbor has garbage electricity. Obviously I'm feeling positive and happy while my neighbor isn't. The pollution can affect us socially because if the environment is destroyed by such thing there will always be people against such things so we can stay in a healthy clean world. Also if anyone is affected with health effects you would socially be affected and so would your family and anyone that cares for you. The amount of stress that would be involved in that is monstrous.

Hydroelectricity and Solar energy

  • Hydro-Hydroelectric energy can be defined as a form of hydropower where the motion of running water (kinetic energy) is converted into electricity.
  • What is Hydroelectricity? Hydroelectric energy is potential energy that is converted to kinetic energy through the forces of gravitation, which again comes from solar energy, driving the water cycle around(The water cycle is driven directly by solar energy. When the sun heats the water in the ocean, some of the water on the surface is vaporized. The water vapor rises and when it reaches higher layers of air and is cooled, the water falls down in the form of rain, hail or snow. The water flows in streams and rivers, finally reaching the sea where it again evaporates).The water cycle is driven directly by solar energy. When the sun heats the water in the ocean, some of the water on the surface is vaporized.To answer the question, hydroelectric energy is the result of heat energy from the sun and the gravitational forces from the earth.
  • Hydro-Turbines and generators capture and convert that energy into electricity(water),the energy comes from the sun which is then put into the electrical grid “The water itself is not reduced or used up in the process, and because it is an endless, constantly recharging system, hydro power is defined as a renewable energy by the Environmental Protection Agency.”Logically it is a renewable source since you can use that water over and over again, and yet that water is not polluted or used or anything it stays the same.
  • Canada is the third largest producer of hydro power in the world.Hydro accounts for approximately 60 % of electricity generated in Canada.
  • Canadian hydro is committed to working collaboratively with host communities to ensure projects are developed in the most sustainable and socially acceptable way.
  • Canadian hydro power provides a clean, renewable and reliable source of electricity with no air pollution and close to zero greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Tens of thousands of jobs are supported every year by the hydro power industry. This benefits local communities, but also the Canadian economy at large.



Fun Fact#4-How does matter and energy interact with the water cycle?How is it transformed?

Water is matter, basically like everything else with mass. So the water cycle clearly transports matter(obvious example: water itself). At the same time water transports energy.Transformation: The energy comes from the Sun which causes the water to evaporate in the first place. This solar energy drives the cycle by evaporating water from the oceans, lakes, rivers, and even the soil. Other water moves from plants to the atmosphere through the process of transpiration(Transpiration is the process where plants absorb water through the roots and then give off water vapor through pores in their leaves. As liquid water evaporates, it forms water vapor and clouds, where water droplets eventually gain enough "mass" to fall back to Earth as precipitation. The precipitation then becomes run-off or ground water, and works its way over various timescales back into the surface reservoirs. Energy can also be transported by the movement of water from place to place. An example of energy and matter interacted would be, water that evaporates from the ocean carries energy from the sun into the atmosphere. This energy, if the conditions are right, can generate hurricanes(Matter=everything with mass like the water, energy=Sun's energy, all the particles from the sunlight).

Solar- Solar panels are made up of photovoltaic (PV) cells, which converts sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity throughout the day. Which then converts the DC electricity generated by the solar panels into the alternating current (AC) electricity.

Solar power accounts for 3.5 per cent of electricity in Canada. It is is the third largest renewable source of Canada's electricity generation. Its share in Canada's electricity generation is 1.4 per cent. Obviously it does give to the economy as it does give jobs and people do it for a living.



  • Fossil fuels cost roughly about $700 billion to $1 trillion each year on coal,oil,and natural gas and suffer the consequences of pollution from fossil fuels through damage to our health and environment.
  • Hydro turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient. In the U.S., hydropower is produced for an average of 0.85 cents per kilowatt an hour.
  • Solar power costs an average of about $19,000-$29,000, as the system costs about $9,000-$10,000,Solar Panels $6,500(but it can vary), Balance of System $2,500-$3,000,Installation $7,500-$9,000
  • But there also times where the installation is free and the actual watts of energy are charged.The cost per watt is approximately $3.00 per watt, installed. The average sized solar panel system is 5,000 watts, so this brings the total cost to $15,000. Systems can cost more or less mostly depending upon a homeowner's energy usage.





  • Even though fossil fuels are a great source of energy that we have been using for many years, the effects that come with it have been consequential. The effects on our environment and social economy is pretty disastrous. First of all, it harms us, animals, and the environment due to pollution. From the exhaust from our cars to factories letting out harmful chemicals and substances. For instance, according to W.H.O, it has been estimated that there are about half a million deaths in India per year due to air pollution and over 200,000 in the U.S. People who live in places with high levels of air pollutants.According to conserve energy future.com, Over 1 million seabirds and 100,000 sea mammals are killed by air pollution every year. Obviously that sets up a social problem as people are affected, our social patterns and behaviours are all usually affected when people they know and learn about, are being affected by something really serious. Not mention the health effects usually always affect the people effected and their families socially.
  • Hydropower is fueled by water, so it's a clean fuel source, meaning it won't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, it’s basically environment friendly.Hydroelectric power is a domestic source of energy, allowing each state to produce their own energy without being reliant on international fuel sources. Hydropower is only reliable on water, which is driven by the sun, making it a renewable power source, making it a more reliable and affordable source than fossil fuels that are rapidly being depleted. Impoundment hydropower creates reservoirs that offer a variety of recreational opportunities, notably fishing, swimming, and boating. Most water power installations are required to provide some public access to the reservoir to allow the public to take advantage of these opportunities.In addition to a sustainable fuel source, hydropower efforts produce a number of benefits, such as flood control, irrigation, and water supply. “Canadian hydropower provides a clean, renewable and reliable source of electricity with no air pollution and close to zero greenhouse gas emissions.” Not to mention tens of thousands of jobs are supported every year by the hydropower industry, This benefits local communities, but also the Canadian economy at large.
  • Solar power systems derive clean, pure energy from the sun. Installing solar panels on your home helps combat greenhouse gas emissions(pollution) and reduces our collective dependence on fossil fuels.Solar energy is a resource that is not only sustainable for energy consumption, it is indefinitely renewable (at least until the sun runs out in billions of years).





Difference or no difference

  • Well first of all, it may look like there is no difference as electricity is just electricity but there is more to it, that meets the eye. In terms of the initial cost fossil fuels or thermal energy(electricity) generating plants are much cheaper, but their maintenance costs are high and need more work. Therefore it's more costly. But hydroelectricity, the initial cost of generating hydro-electric power is more costly but their maintenance costs are low and need much less work. Thus in the end it is comparatively much cheaper.
  • Fossil fuels/thermal power produces air and dust pollution and hydro is a clean source of energy. It creates almost no pollution or waste materials which are harmful to the environment.
  • The sources of thermal power are non-renewable resources. So, they are completely exhausted,done,finished, bye bye, after use and cannot be renewed. but hydro power is a renewable resource. It isn't exhausted after uses.
  • Nearly 80 per cent of the world’s total production of power comes from thermal electricity. But the world’s total power production, less than 20 per cent of it comes from hydro-electricity.
  • But then again thermal energy takes less knowledge and skill compared to hydro.
  • For solar energy it's basically the same thing as its clean energy, it's renewable,and it costs less in the end.




Which is better overall

  • Overall I would say hydro and solar are better, the reason of which of which is because they are pure, clean, and renewable source of energy. The power comes from the sun and water so it safe and doesn't produce pollution. The initial cost may be more costly but since the maintenance and labor costs are lower, in the long run it would be cheaper than fossil fuels as it is the complete opposite. Fossil fuels produce pollution, are not renewable, and costs less but maintenance and labor work is high causing it to be more expensive in the end. Nevertheless solar power cannot generate electricity at night, and not as much on cloudy days. Thus overall hydro is the best with a clean, renewable, cheaper(in the long run), safe, source of energy plus it even creates many jobs.

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