Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. There are three types of sedimentary rocks. For example claystone, coal and rock salt.
One Sedimentary rock is the claystone , is more than 67 percent clay-size .A claystone is lithified, and non-fissile mudrock. In order for a rock to be considered a claystone , it must consist of up to fifty percent clay, which measures less than 1/256 of a millimeter in particle size. Clay minerals are integral to mudrocks, and represent the first or second most abundant constituent by volume. There are 35 recognized clay mineral species on Earth. They make muds cohesive and plastic, or able to flow. Clay is by far the smallest particles recognized in mudrocks..
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral form of sodium chloride. Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may also be light blue, dark blue, purple, pink, red, orange, yellow or gray depending on the amount and type of impurities. It commonly occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates, halides, and borates.