Most efforts to reform society came out of the new religious movements,and moving across the country. The Second Great Awakening was one of the movements, it was a revival of religions, feeling ,and belief.The social movement was nest,this was the belief of the goodness of man; they believed a self reliant man could reform society. However the social movement also disagreed with organized religion and political parties.
Abolitionists was a group of growing numbers of Americans, both black and white who were speaking out against slavery. The abolitionist movement began in the Revolutionary era , in response to the inhumane treatment of slaves and an effort to remove blacks from the white society. William Lloyd Garrison ( formed the American Anti/Slavery Society in 1833) , Angelina and Sarah Grimke ( spoke on the evils of slavery), Frederick Douglass ( lectured against slavery and quickly became a leader in the abolitionist movement) , Sojourner Truth ( former slave who was inspired by Douglass to speak out about the evils of slavery) , and Harriet Tubman ( was a conductor of the Underground Railroad) , made a huge part in the abolitionist movement. The antislavery movement failed to gain a foothold in the south , it also paved the way for the next reform effort , the women's rights movement.
The women's rights movement of the mid-nineteenth century unified women around a number of issues that were seen as fundamental rights for all citizens; they included: the right to own property, access to higher education, reproductive rights, and suffrage; Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton attend the World Antislavery Convention in London in 1849, but they were not allowed to speak about slavery because they were women. Women were not able to vote nor hold office , any wages they earned belonged to their husband. The Seneca Falls Convention demanded equality for women at work, school, church and in the voting booth. Reformers for women's rights mad progress; New York passes laws allowing women to keep property and their wages. The right for women to vote was not achieved until 1920.
The conditions at the prisons were devastating, inmates were bound in chains and locked in cages, children were jailed with adults, food in short supply, inmates were left in the dark or in damp cells. Most inmates were in prison for not paying debts, no matter by how small they were. A helper named Dorotha Dixi ( a Boston school teacher) had issue a report after seeing the prisons, and she went to the legislature highlighting the horrible conditions. After land makers voted to create new mental hospitals for mentally ill.
Alcohol abuse was widespread among men , women, and children too. It would break up families, lead to crime, and mental illness. Later in the late 1820s, the movement was a campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol. Then by 1850, Maine banned the sale of alcohol than other states soon followed in their lead. The laws were later repealed, but the movement would strengthen in the late 1800s.
Few students attended school because of the cost. Horace Mann made a effort to change that, he was later given the nickname " father of american public schools ". He spoke to citizens about public schools producing education to kids. Reformers saw education as a way of solving some problems in society. The citizens of Massachusetts voted to pay taxes to build better schools and etc. Public schools were spreading all across the country but not every child had the opportunity to a public education. Few girl were able to go to high school and/or college.