Ethiopia Project By: Max Main

In this page, I will be going over the five themes of Geography

Theme 1- "Location"

(It's position on the map)

Ethiopia is located in East Africa

The capital of Ethiopia is "Addis Ababa," and is located near the center of the country.

Addis Ababa

Ethiopia is located near the equator, and is bordered on all sides by; Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, Eritrea, and Djibouti. Since Ethiopia is near the equator, it has a tropical climate. The temperature there varies a lot due to elevation, but usually stays between 60 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

Ethiopia is home to many different landforms and bodies of water. Deserts, rainforests, and mountain ranges cover Ethiopia, as well as Several rivers. The Omo river, the Awash river, and the Nile river all run throughout the country.

The Omo river

Theme 2 - "Place"

(The characteristics of a certain location)

Ethiopia has many natural resources. Salt, copper, natural gas, and gold to name a few. Another big natural resource in Ethiopia is potash. Potash is a salt the contains lots of potassium, which is used in medicine, soap, and plant fertilizer.

Bottom left: Potash

There are lots of different cultural groups that inhabit Ethiopia. The biggest groups being the Oromo, the Amhara, and the Somalis.

The main religions in Ethiopia are; Christianity, Islam, Judiaism, and Paganism. Ethiopia is a predominantly Christian country, and most go to an Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Considering that a decent portion of Ethiopians are Christian, they celebrate some of the same holidays we do, like Christmas and Easter.

They also celebrate the anniversary of the battle of Adwa. Which is the battle that secured their independence as a country.

Ethiopia's current constitution was placed in 1994, and the government is a "federal parliamentary republic." The government exercises executive power, and is comprised of both a prime minister, a president, as well as parliament. A president is elected every six years, but the prime minister is chosen by the current party in power.

Theme 3- "Human environment Interaction"

(How humans interact with the environment)

A few major "cash crops" in Ethiopia are; coffee, cotton, grains, and oilseed.

Bottom- Coffee Beans

Over 80 percent of Ethiopia's population work as farmers. Many small farmers raise crops to sell in markets. Coffee farming is also popular because it's one of the biggest exports, and makes up around 60 percent of the country's earnings.

There are several species of animals that have become endangered in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian wolf, the Nubian Ibex, the spotted necked otter, and the Grevy's zebra are all endangered. Expanding agriculture, and drought have reduced animal habitats, and caused famine, Making it hard for certain animals to live.

1. Spotted necked otter 2. Nubian Ibex 3. Ethiopian wolf

Due to bad farming techniques like overgrazing, and deforestation, soil erosion has become a rising problem in Ethiopia. Some farm land is becoming unusable and the lack of crops is stretching resources pretty thin. Now add in a rapidly growing population. There isn't enough food for everyone. The Ethiopian government is trying to counteract some of the population growth by educating the lower classes, and thereby lowering the fertility rate.

Theme 4- "Region"

(An area with unified characteristics)

In Ethiopia, school is compulsory and free for everyone between 5 and 16. Now although education is free, due to poor facilities and underprivileged families, only 60% of children are enrolled in full-time education.

The area of Ethiopia is 426,400 square miles.

Ethiopias GDP per capita is 505.05 USD.

Population of Ethiopia is around 103 million. There's around 270 people per square mile.

Ethiopia is located in a tropical climate region. Located fairly close to the equator.

Life expectancy is 66 years old for females, and 62 for males.

Only 39 percent of Ethiopias population is literate.

Theme 5- "movement"

(Movement of ideas and goods)

Ethiopias main exports are coffee, livestock product (leather and meats), oilseed and mineral products.

Coffee, leather, oilseed, potash (mineral)

The current Ethiopian flag was adopted in 1996 after the defeat of their Marxist Derg regime (a committee of army and police forces that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987). It's a green, yellow, and red tricolor, with the national symbol in the center. The flag is intended to represent the diversity and unity of Ethiopia.

During the European colonization of Africa, Italy was attempting to establish an Italian empire. Italy invaded Ethiopia once in 1896, but Ethiopia managed to fend them off. Then Italy invaded again in 1935 and successfully took over the country. Ethiopia was then merged with Eritrea and Somaliland, to create the "Italian East African colony." Five years later, Britain forced Italy to leave and Ethiopia gained its independence back.

When it comes to having access to technology, Ethiopia is lagging behind. For example, only 17 percent of Ethiopians have access to a mobile phone, and less than 1 percent can access the internet. The middle class is currently increasing, and that could be beneficial to technological development, but that could take a pretty long time.

The rising middle class in cities like Addis Ababa could help make technology more accessible.

Transportation in Ethiopia is very limited. Not many people can afford a car, so the majority of people use public transportation. Buses are definitely the most common way to get around, but mostly because there's not many different options. In some of the bigger cities though, there are some working train routes, and taxis.

Communication in Ethiopia is also a bit of a hassle. Most people who live in rural areas would have to travel around 20 miles to get to the nearest phone. Most of the technology is pretty old and unreliable, so something like rain could easily shutdown communications. Access to services like Skype are heavily restricted and could get you into a lot of trouble if not used carefully.

Current eventS

1. Ethiopia has recently entered a six-month state of emergency. Many anti-government protests, and several terrorist attacks have occurred in Oromo regions of the country. The state of emergency was imposed to hopefully stop the spreading of the protests. Dr. Merera Gudina, chairman of the Oromo Federalist Congress, has been charged with terrorism by Ethiopian prosecutors. Guidina was accused of meeting up with anti-government groups, and "flouting" (mocking) the government.

Right picture: Dr. Merera Gudina

2. Ethiopia celebrates the 121 year anniversary of the battle of Adwa. On March 1st 1896, Italy invaded Ethiopia near the town of Adwa. Ethiopian forces managed to fend off Italy and preserve their independence. Many people sacrificed their lives for Ethiopia's independence, and celebrations will be held in their honor.

Visit Ethiopia

Ethiopia is home to many beautiful landscapes. Lakes, mountains, caves, and national parks are all over Ethiopia. There are so many different and interesting sites to see, and the food is also amazing! Ethiopia would be a great destination of any vacation.

Growing up in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has free, mandatory education for kids between the ages 5 and 16. Since Ethiopia is so rural most kids walk several miles to school and back each day. A lot of people in Ethiopia are poor, so they require their kids to help them farm for food and provide for their families after school. Over 90 percent of kids start school, but less than half complete their education because they're busy farming.

During their pastime, kids can often be found playing games with their friends. Kids often play games like Soccer which is the most popular sport in Ethiopia. They also like to dance, and play homemade games.

Credits:

Created with images by D-Stanley - "Jacaranda Tree"

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