Rivalry in The Northwest
The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It included all of what are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho plus parts of Montana and Wyoming.
Adams- Onis Treaty
In 1819 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty. The Spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border and to give up all claims to Oregon.
Mountain Men in Oregon
Mountain men are men that spend most of their time in the Rocky Mountains and go on adventures in the American West. Many had Native American wives. They lived in buffalo-skin lodges and dressed in fringed buckskin pants, moccasins, and beads.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?
We gained land that is now Oregon and access to the Pacific Ocean.
Oregon and Manifest Destiny- Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
In the 1830s, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle. Economic troubles in the East and reports of Oregon's fertile land drew many people.
Along the Oregon Trail
America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny
In the 1840s, New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a national mission. O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon. In the 1844 presidential election, James K. Polk, the Democratic nominee, supported this desire. Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?
Polk supported the manifest destiny and Clay didn't.
Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state?
Spain Transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
Florida had an appointed territorial governor, a territorial legislature, and a nonvoting delegate to the United States Congress. The capital was located about midway between St. Augustine and Pensacola, Florida's major cities at that time.
The Territory Grows
In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there. Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population. Officials organized a vote to determine if Floridians wanted to form a state.
Statehood of Florida
With the question of slavery removed, President John Tyler signed the Florida statehood bill. Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845.
What Caused the population of Florida to grow?
As news of the area's fertile land spread, thousands of new settlers streamed into Florida.
Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas. At the time, the non-Native American population of Texas was about 3,000.
Fun Fact: For 13 long days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire. On March 6, 1836, Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamo's walls.
Texas Declares Its Independce
On March 2, 1836--four days before the fall of the Alamo--they declared independence from Mexico. They then established the Republic of Texas.
The Lone Star Republic
Texas Becomes a State
After Polk won, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas. In 1845 Texas joined the Union.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?
Because Mexico owned it first and America wasn't following their rules.
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
The Santa Fe Trail was a busy trade route, it made the trade with New Mexico increase.
The New Mexico Territory
In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories. It included all of the land that is now the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?
Becknell made a route and it was a big improvement over the trails that existed in the dry and rugged area at the time.
California's Spanish Culture
After Mexico refused to sell the lands, Polk planned to gain them through war. To justify a war, Polk hoped to get Mexico to strike first.
A War Plan
Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals. First, the United States would drive Mexican forces out of Texas. Second, it would seize New Mexico and California. Finally, American forces would advanced into Mexico and capture the capital, Mexico City.
Even before war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising. They were encouraged by American general John C. Fremont. The settlers had little trouble overcoming the weak official Mexican presence in the territory.
Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico have the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory.
What did America gain from the Mexican War?
Mexico gave the United States more than 500,000 square miles of territory--what are now the states of California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as most of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
How did the discovery of gold help California?
People heard about the riches and wanted to have money, so they told people and it got around.
California Gold Rush
When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches. Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war with Mexico and made Californios--Mexicans living in California--citizen of the United States. The treaty also guaranteed them the rights to their lands.
The Life of a Forty-Niner
Gold Rush Society
Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women. Lonely and suffering hardships, many men spent their free hours drinking, gambling, and fighting.
Economic and Political Progress
The Gold Rush had lasting effects on California. Agriculture, shipping, and trade grew to meet the demand for food and other goods.
How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?
People stated getting more money and it started with a large number of hotels, stores, groceries, bakeries, and gambling houses.
A Religious Refuge in Utah
While the Gold Rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah. There, Mormons, or members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were building a new community and fulfilling their vision of the godly life.
The Mormons Move On
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1930s and 1840s. The founder of the Mormon Church was Joseph Smith, a New Englander living in western New York.
A Haven in the Desert
The Mormon migration began in 1846. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek in the largest single migration in American history.
Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?
They kept moving because they suffered from persecution, or mistreatment because of their beliefs in having more than one wife.