Agriculture by: Audrey Johnson

This is wheat, the first crop grown by humans. People of Jericho are the first known people to have lived mainly from the cultivation of crops such as wheat. Soon after 8,000 BC in a few Middle East places, it began to be farmed more heavily.

The First Agricultural Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, the first agricultural revolution, occurred 11,000 years ago, was the transformation for human societies to go from hunting and gathering, to farming. People began tending sowing, and reaping wheat with the earliest developments taking place in the Middle East. The drastic change in how food was being distributed to communities was met with longer, healthier lives because there was a more reliable source of food. At this point in time, labor was very intensive and meant that most people could only produce small amounts of food, The population began to grow, more people needed more food and more food ultimately meant more work, thus creating a cycle still present in modern society. Not only were plants domesticated in this process, but also animals such as cows, pigs and chickens; all of which are still in our diet today.

This machine is called a binder, it binds sheaves of small grains into bundles. It had a mechanism that wrapped wire around the gavel of cut grain, this was incredibly popular among farmers however it was expensive and hard to repair.

The Second Agricultural Revolution

This revolution was the result of the benefits from the Industrial Revolution, occurring between 1700 to 1900 in developed countries. The Industrial Revolution paved way for technological purposes for agriculture to increase production and distribution of products. At this point in time, any given field was now doubled or even tripled in size, but with the same amount of labor and that was because technology made bigger fields easier to manage. The impact of the increase in productivity was felt heavily on a local and global scale because of the sharp population growth. many less developed countries are still in the Second Agricultural Revolution.

Third Agricultural Revolution

This revolution occurred in the later half of the 20th century and focused on the advancement of crops, making them bigger and better. Biotechnology clashed with farming and eventually grew to be a staple in most every farm. Grapes are bigger and sweeter and strawberries are redder. Biotechnology and genetic engineering are responsible for GMO's, genetically modified organisms. This revolutions is also responsible for the increase in chemical fertilizers making farms free of most weeds, bugs and rodents. Now when looking at modern day farming

In a lab, food is modified to fill consumers wants and demands such as juicier grapes and redder strawberries.

GMO's

When genes from the DNA of one species are extracted and artificially forced into the genes of an unrelated plant or an animal is known as a GMO, a genetically modified organism. The foreign genes vary between that of bacteria, viruses, insects, animals or even humans. GMO's have entered the field of agriculture, specific examples include tomatoes that have been injected with a foreign gene from an ice fish to give it antifreeze or even potatoes that no longer bruise. Transgenic traits in corn and soybeans now have the ability to resist herbicide glyphosate, just these examples alone can show just how much the food we eat has changed. Pros regarding GMO's include the resistance to insects, tolerance to herbicides, tolerance for heat, cold, or drought and even a longer shelf life. Some cons however include: Allergies, resistance to antibiotics, and even cancer.

Credits:

Created with images by Skitterphoto - "livestock cow cattle" • James Laurence Stewart - "P8010060" • IMLS DCC - "Farming, Binder" • artursfoto - "modified tomato genetically"

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