Alexander the Great conquered the entire near East and the eastern Mediterranean under one leadership. The mix of the Greek and Persian cultures developed into foundations of Christianity and down the road it would be Islam as well.
He defeated Persian when Darius III was in charge. Alexander the Great made use of the Greek Phalanx which was a wedge of calvarymen with calvary on horseback in rear. Persia's navy in Egypt was destroyed by the Greeks. The aftermath was that Alexander marries a Persian woman once Darius III is killed my his officers and the Persian King flees. Greek cultures get mixed with the eastern cultures.
Once Alexander the Great dies in 323 BCE at the age of 33, his generals try to fight for his position. Four of them would split into different kingdoms. The Ptolemies were in Egypt, the selucids in eastern asia, the antigonids in Macedonia and finally the Pergamum. He was considered the greatest conqueror of the world.
He had taken over his father Phillip II who was unfortunately assasinated in 336 BCE. He was murdered by one of his bodyguards. It was never known on why his bodyguard chose to do this. He planned on taking over Athens and Sparta but only made it to Thebes and Corinth.
He advanced through Syria and finished the Persian army at Gaugamela. He destroyed the capital in what is known today as Iran in 330 BCE. Alexander would have taken over India but his men threatened with mutiny so he had to force back west to Babylon. Whatever Alexander The Great was trying to ultimately create is unknown to this day.