Deep Sky Objects & Much More Trisha Paradero

People

Albert Einstein

Bio

Born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein had a passion for inquiry that eventually led him to develop the special and general theories of relativity. Einstein died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey.

Fun Fact

At birth his head had a weird shape. It is being said that the back of his head was very large but within the first few weeks, the shape gradually changed to normal.

Contribution

Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century, with his work also having a major impact on the development of atomic energy.

Galileo Galilei

Bio

Born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy, Galileo Galilei was a mathematics professor who made pioneering observations of nature with long-lasting implications for the study of physics. He died in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642.

Fun Fact

The middle finger of Galileo’s right hand has been exhibited at the Museo Galileo in Florence, Italy.

Contribution

He constructed a telescope and supported the Copernican theory, which supports a sun-centered solar system.

Urbain La Verrier

Bio

Born in 1811 at Saint-Lô, France. He was appointed a teacher of astronomy at the Ecole Polytechnic Paris. Immediately after his appointment he began an intensive study of the motion of Mercury. Urbain Le Verrier died in Paris in 1877.

Fun Fact

The unusual motion of Uranus led Le Verrier to look for the presence of a planet (Neptune) beyond it.

Contribution

Through mathematical calculations, he predicted the presence of another planet beyond Uranus. Le Verrier gave his calculations to astronomer Johann Gottried Galle at the Berlin Observatory. Using Le Verrier's calculations, Galle was able to observe the planet within one hour of starting. Le Verrier expected to be declared the sole discoverer of Neptune, but months prior to his calculations being completed John Couch Adams, an English mathematician, had accomplished the same feat. As a consequence, Le Verrier and Adams share the honor as Neptune's discoverers.

William Herschel

Bio

Born in Hanover, Brunswick-Lüneburg on November15, 1738 and became a music teacher and composer. He died on August 25, 1822 in Slough, Berkshire. Herschel was 83 years old.

Fun Fact

Contribution

Herschel later studied the nature of nebulae and discovered that all nebulae were formed of stars, hence rejecting the long-held belief that nebulae were composed of a luminous fluid. He also discovered two moons of Saturn, namely Mimas and Enceladus, and coined the term “asteroid”. Herschel maintained that the solar system is moving through space and found out the direction of that movement. He also suggested that the Milky Way was in the shape of a disk.

Clyde Tombaugh

Bio

Clyde Tombaugh was born in 1906 to an Illinois farm family. Clyde was dissatisfied with his store bought telescope and decided to build one for himself. Clyde's father took a second job to pay for the materials needed to build it. The telescope Clyde built in 1925 was only the first of more than thirty telescopes he was to build over his lifetime. He died at the age of ninety on January 17, 1997.

Fun Fact

Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto years before he ever attended college!

Contribution

Clyde Tombaugh photographed 65% of the sky and spent thousands of hours examining photographs of the night sky. After ten months of very hard work, sometimes working through the night in an unheated dome, Clyde Tombaugh discovered an object he named Pluto.

Percival Lowell

Bio

Born in March 13, 1855, Boston, MA. Percival Lowell was an astronomer, author and mathematician who founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff Arizona. Died in November 12, 1916, Flagstaff, AZ.

Fun Fact

The naming of Pluto was influenced by his initials.

Contribution

He is best known for fueling speculation that there was life on Mars, a vision that has had enormous impact on the development of Science Fiction.

Issac newton

Bio

Born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, England, Isaac Newton was an established physicist and mathematician, and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century Scientific Revolution. Newton died in London on March 31, 1727.

Fun Fact

He has the same birthday as me.

Contribution

With discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics, Newton developed the principles of modern physics.

Vera rubin

Bio

Born on July 23, 1928, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She also became an American astronomer. But died on December 25, 2016, Princeton, NJ.

Fun Fact

Even though a high school physics teacher warned Rubin away from science, and an admissions officer at Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania advised her to major in something more suitable than astronomy, Rubin went her own way.

Contribution

Vera Cooper Rubin's measurement of the speed of spinning galaxies Dark matter is believed to make up 90 percent of the universe. It is material that is thought to exert gravitational force on stars to keep them spinning inside their galaxies.

Edwin hubble

Bio

Edwin Hubble was born on November 20, 1889. He graduated from the University of Chicago and served in WWI before settling down to lead research in the field of astrophysics at Mount Wilson Observatory in California. Died on September 28, 1953, San Marino, CA

Fun Fact

Hubble spent a year teaching physics, math, and Spanish at New Albany High School in Indiana.

Contribution

Finding a constant relationship between galaxies' redshift and distance, which helped to eventually prove that the universe is expanding. Additionally, a classification system that he created for galaxies has been used by other researchers for decades, now known as the Hubble sequence.

Deep sky objects

Nova

A nova is a nuclear explosion that occurs when gravity from a white dwarf star collects hydrogen from a neighboring star.

Supernova

Every now and again our Milky Way galaxy is lit up by a huge explosion. The death of a supergiant – a heavyweight star which is many times bigger than the Sun.

Open Cluster

A group of star formed from a molecular cloud, the illuminated parts of which we see as one or more nebulae. They are also called galactic clusters since they exist within the galaxy.

Global Cluster

A group of stars of a similar age which often orbits the central bulge of a galaxy. Gravity holds clusters together and gives them their spherical shape. Towards the centre of a clusters there are many stars in a relatively small space.

Nebula

A cloud of gas and dust in space. Nebulas appear in many shapes and colors. Sometimes a nebula blocks out the light of stars beyond it. When this happens, the nebula may look like a dark cloud.

Galaxy

Most galaxies are moving apart at high speed, except in galaxy clusters where they dance around each other. Nearly all stars belong to gigantic groups known as galaxies. The Sun is one of at least 100 billion stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And there are billions of galaxies in the Universe.

Quasar

Extremely distant objects in our known universe. They are the furthest objects away from our galaxy that can be seen. Quasars are extremely bright masses of energy and light. The name quasar is actually short for quasi-stellar radio source or quasi-stellar object.

Black Hole

The strangest objects in the Universe. A black hole does not have a surface, like a planet or star. Instead, it is a region of space where matter has collapsed in on itself.

Pulsar

Originally stood for pulsating radio source, is a rapidly rotating neutron star, whose electromagnetic radiation is observed in regularly spaced interval, or pulses. Pulsars are closely related to magnetars, the main difference being the strenght of the object's magnetic field.

Black Dwarf

The remains of a sun-sized star which has evolved to a white dwarf and subsequently cooled down such that it no longer gives out radiation.

White Dwarf

When a star like the Sun has burned all of its hydrogen fuel, it expands to become a red giant. After puffing off its outer layers, the star collapses to form a very dense white dwarf.

Solar System

Sun

The sun lies at the heart of the solar system, where it is by far the largest object. It holds 99.8 percent of the solar system's mass and is roughly 109 times the diameter of the Earth — about one million Earths could fit inside the sun.

Solar Flare

A flare is defined as a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness. A solar flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released.

Solar Prominence

a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's hot outer atmosphere, called the corona.

Sunspot

Sunspots are darker, cooler areas on the surface of the sun in a region called the photosphere.

Solar Wind

The Sun is so powerful and energetic that it actually creates a type of wind that travels throughout the Solar System. This wind is called the solar wind. The solar wind is a continuous stream of charged particles that flows out of the Sun in all directions.

Auroras

It all starts with our closest star, the Sun. The Sun is incredibly energetic and is constantly making what we call the solar wind -- a stream of tiny particles. These fly out into space and are deflected by the magnetic field that surrounds planet Earth.

Solar Eclipse

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes in front of the Sun causing a shadow to fall on certain portions of the Earth. The eclipse is not seen from every place on Earth, but only from the locations where the shadow falls. From these locations, it appears as if the Sun has gone dark.

Mercury

Mercury is a planet in our solar system. It is the smallest of the eight planets. It is also the closest to the sun. Mercury goes around the sun the fastest of all the planets. Mercury has no moons.

Venus

Venus, the second planet from the sun. Venus and Earth are often called twins because they are similar in size, mass, density, composition and gravity. Venus is the hottest world in the solar system.

Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. The bright rust color Mars is known for is due to iron-rich minerals in its regolith — the loose dust and rock covering its surface.

Jupiter

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. Its been about 80 times more massive, it would have actually become a star instead of a planet. Its atmosphere resembles that of the sun, made up mostly of hydrogen and helium, and with four large moons and many smaller moons in orbit around it, Jupiter by itself forms a kind of miniature solar system.

Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn is a gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. Saturn is bigenough to hold more than 760 Earths, and is more massive than any other planet except Jupiter, roughly 95 times Earth's mass.

Uranus

Uranus, the first planet discovered in modern times. Uranus is composed primarily of rock and various ices, with only about 15% hydrogen and a little helium (in contrast to Jupiter and Saturn which are mostly hydrogen). Uranus (and Neptune) are in many ways similar to the cores of Jupiter and Saturn minus the massive liquid metallic hydrogen envelope.

Neptune

Neptune is dark, cold, and very windy. It's the last of the planets in our solar system. Neptune is very similar to Uranus. It's made of a thick soup of water, ammonia, and methane over an Earth-sized solid center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen, helium, and methane. Neptune has six rings, but they're very hard to see.

Pluto

Pluto is a dwarf planet. A dwarf planet travels around, or orbits, the sun just like other planets. But it is much smaller. This dwarf planet has five moons. Pluto is not very big. It is only half as wide as the United States. Pluto is smaller than Earth's moon. Pluto is about 40 times farther from the sun than Earth is.

Comets

What keeps the comet in motion and guides its path is the gravity from all the planets and stars it passes. When a comet is in our solar system, most of the gravity affecting the comet's motion is due to the Sun. As a comet gets closer to the Sun it moves faster and faster, because the closer an object is to the Sun the stronger the Sun's gravity acts on it. As well as moving faster near the Sun, the comet's tail will grow in length since more of the ice will be evaporating.

Oort Cloud

An extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system. This cloud of particles is theorized to be the remains of the disc of material that formed the Sun and planets. The Oort Cloud is very distant from the Sun and it can be disrupted by the nearby passage of a star, nebula, or by actions in the disk of the Milky Way.

Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter where most of the asteroids in our Solar System are found around the Sun. Astronomers think that the asteroid belt is made up of material that was never able to form into a planet, or of the remains of a planet which broke apart a very long time ago.

Meteorite

a meteor that survives its passage through the earth's atmosphere such that part of it strikes the ground. More than 90 percent of meteorites are of rock, while the remainder consist wholly or partly of iron and nickel.

Moons

The first moons to be discovered outside of the Earth’s moon were the Galilean moons of Jupiter, named after astronomer and discoverer Galileo Galilei. The moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are Jupiter’s largest and only the first four to be revealed, as to date, the planet has 63 moons.

Definitions

Apparent magnitude

Noun - the magnitude of a celestial object as it is actually measured from the earth.

Absolute magnitude

Noun - the magnitude (brightness) of a celestial object as it would be seen at a standard distance of 10 parsecs.

Eclipsing Variable Star

A variable star whose change in luminosity is caused by two or more stars in a binary or multiple system eclipsing each other rather than by any intrinsic property of the star itself. The period of variation coincides with the orbital period of the system and can range from a few minutes to several years. See more under binary star, multiple star.

Variable star

Noun - a star whose brightness changes, either irregularly or regularly.

Light year

Noun - a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9.4607 × 1012 km (nearly 6 trillion miles).

Astronomical unit

Noun - a unit of measurement equal to 149.6 million kilometers, the mean distance from the center of the earth to the center of the sun.

Event horizon

Noun - a theoretical boundary around a black hole beyond which no light or other radiation can escape.

Electro-magnetic spectrum

Noun - the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.

Roygbiv

An acronym for the sequence of hues commonly described as making up a rainbow: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet.

Dark matter

Noun - (in some cosmological theories) nonluminous material that is postulated to exist in space and that could take any of several forms including weakly interacting particles ( cold dark matter ) or high-energy randomly moving particles created soon after the Big Bang ( hot dark matter ).

🤔Strange But True🤔

Gliese 436 b is a Neptune-sized exoplanet located about 33 light-years away in the constellation Leo. Astronomers believe that it embodies exotic states of water that causes its surface to be covered in burning ice. The pressure on the planet forces the ice to stay solid, but the extreme surface temperature of 570° F (300° C) superheats the water, causing it to come off as steam.

It takes 24 hours for Earth to rotate on its axis to make a day, and 365 days to orbit around the sun for a year. It takes around 230 million years for our solar system to complete a single orbit around the Milky Way. The last time it was in its current position, the earliest dinosaurs had just appeared, and flowering plants wouldn’t evolve for another 100 million years.

Though it is impossible to smell space directly or through a spacesuit, astronauts report that upon returning from a spacewalk, their gear smells distinctively like seared steak, hot metal, and arc welding fumes. The source of this odor could be byproduct from dying stars, the traces of which can be found throughout the universe.

Our solar system may smell like hot metal and seared steak, but what about the middle of the Milky Way? According to recent research from the Max Plank Institute, it smells like raspberries and tastes like rum. They found that ethyl formate, a key chemical component for both raspberries and rum, can be readily found at the center of our galaxy.

When analog television sets aren’t tuned to a channel correctly, it results in static and white noise. Around 1% of that is radiation left over from the Big Bang, better known as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This interference between overlapping signals actually allowed Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson to discover the CMB in 1965.

References

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William, L. (2014). Quasar. Retrieved from http://www.kidsastronomy.com/quasar.htm

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