In Text Citations

Why we use parenthetical / in-text citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

Signal Phrase

A sentence, phrase, or clause that leads to a quotation, to borrowed information (paraphrased information), or to a statistic. These generally include the author's name and some justification for using him or her as an expert in this context.


In the words of researchers Redelmeier and Tibshirani, “...

On the school website, Shaun Lascom, International Student Coordinator that “joining student organizations will help you make friends”.

Dr. Hatzenbakker, history professor at MSU, points out that “history happened yesterday” (14).

"Family plans are a better deal" claims wireless spokesperson Jill Bean (Wireless Company A).

Parenthetical Citation

This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.


"The second major source (of pollution), accounting for one-fifth of global CO2 emmisions, is a result of land use changes" (Maslin 7).

"Mobile sources account for more than half of all the air pollution in the United States and the primary mobile source of air pollution is the automobile" (Sources of Air Pollution).

Works Cited

Maslin, Mark. Climate Change: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014.

“NPS: Explore Nature » Air Resources » Air Quality Basics.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Accessed 26 Apr. 2017.

Selection of Classes. Selection of Classes, University of Idaho, 2016.

“Wireless Company A.” Comparing Wireless Companies. Accessed 25 Apr. 2017.


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