Oil resource development is active in 12 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories. Most of the oil sands are located in Alberta. Places like: Peace River, Athabasca, and Cold lake.
There are two methods of extraction are used in the oil sands: pit mining on the surface and on-site drilling underground:
1. Mining: bitumen-rich earth is shoveled into trucks for separation; surface mining has historically been the largest source of production from the oil sands, but has declined over the past few years because approximately 80% of bitumen reserves are too deep underground to be accessible
2. On-Site: injects steam into underground to soften the bitumen and pumps it to the surface through wells
Upstream: Searches for underground or underwater crude oil, drilling wells for exploration, and bringing the crude oil to the surface
Midstream: Involves transporting (by pipeline, rail, barge, or truck), storing and wholesale marketing of crude
Downstream: Improves crude oil, including marketing and distribution of products
Effect on our lives
Oil and gas products fuel cars and heat homes – 94 per cent of transportation demand in Canada. The oil industry drives other industries in Canada such as manufacturing and technology jobs in Ontario
Impact on the environment
impact on the natural environment is a major concern for the mining companies. After mining, the land is reclaimed to its natural, by using the left over sand and soil that were originally there. The processed water is stored in tailings ponds (man-made dam that is made up of salts, chemical compounds and water.) or settling basins (used to control water pollution) on the mine site and re-used in the extraction process.
Large portion of Canadian exports, Provides jobs that spread throughout Canada, Provides Canada with energy security, Massive driver of economic growth in Alberta, Very large reserves,Canada is a stable country and therefore lower risk to investors, Still has enormous growth potential, New technology has resulted in lower emissions, 121,500 people were employed in Alberta's energy sector,$3.56 billion in 2012-2013 royalties to fund public services, Employs 112,000 people across Canada outside Alberta, Drives investment in the country, Spurs innovation and research
excessive CO2 emissions, large amount of waste water produced (3:1),Large habitat and forest destruction,3 million gallons of toxic water runoff per day,50 sq miles now covered in toxic waste water ponds, low yield oil which requires more refining than traditional oil,not preferred by importers (more expensive),Clean burning natural gas used to produce dirty burning crude oil, Over dependence on this industry (all eggs in one basket?),Can have a negative impact on the Canadian Dollar,Bad for international relations (EU called it 'dirty oil'),Waste materials killing birds in the Athabasca region
The resource is used for many purposes. Such as, transportation fuels, fuel oils for heating and electricity generation, asphalt and road oil. Petroleum products are also used to make various plastics, synthetic materials and chemical products. To find some products visit the link below.