What was the Reformation?
The Reformation was an event starting in the early sixteenth century that was dedicated to reforming Catholic doctrine and Catholic beliefs (in short, it was a religious revolution.)
One important factor that sparked the Reformation was Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses which he nailed to the church door in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. Luther's Ninety-five theses was a response to the church's practice of selling indulgences (payments made to reduce one's time in purgatory; it usually costed a one whole year work salary), but he also stated that the Bible's interpretation is up to the person himself and that the church cannot define Christian beliefs.He recognized only three of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church: Baptism, communion, and penance. Altogether, he has formed three doctrines: Sola Scriptura, Sola Gratia, and Sola Fide.
The Five Solas were phrases that came up by the Protestant Reformation and it summarized the Protestants' basic beliefs.
- Sola Scriptura (all doctrines must derive from Scripture)
- Sola Gratia (only by God's grace you are saved)
- Sola Fide (justification by faith alone and not by works).
- Sola Christus (Christ alone is the mediator between man and God).
- Soli Deo Gloria (glory be to God alone)
The Diet of Worms (1521)
Luther was called to testify his believes to Charles V at the Diet of Worms. Charles V at that time was the Holy Roman Emperor. After Luther refused to renounce his beliefs, Fredrick "the Wise" kidnaps Luther and hides him away in a castle and Luther immediately starts to translate the New Testament of the Bible that was in Latin into German.
Biblical Truth Translated into the Vernacular Language
Another contribution of Luther is that he also translated the Bible from the Latin language into German. His works then diffused throughout the German states through the printing press, an influential invention created by Johann Gutenberg. Other Protestant figures came to light and started to translate the Latin-Bible into their vernacular. Two examples are John Wycliffe and William Tyndale, who both translated Scripture into English. Because of this movement of translating Scripture into languages such as German and English, it encouraged others to do the same by translation the Word into vernacular languages. Now, almost everyone can understand and read God's Word without having to depend on the church.
John Calvin, also known as the "Father of Reformed Christianity" was a Protestant stationed in Geneva, Switzerland. He believed that all churches should start from scratch, and this idea were the basis of sub-groups such as the Presbyterians, Calvinists, and the Huguenots. He believed that people are "pre-elected" into heaven, and the un-elected go to hell. No matter how bad you are or what you do in life, you cannot change your fate. This idea was called "predestination". He explains this idea in his work Institutes of Christian Religion, which stood as the cornerstone of his theology. An easy method of remembering and understanding Calvin's beliefs is through the acronym TULIP.
- T- Total depravity of human beings
- U- Unconditional election
- L- Limited atonement (only for the elect)
- I- Irresistible grace (cannot resist being chosen)
- P- Perseverance of the Saints (nothing you can do to get rid of your election)
Calvin stated that images in Catholic Church were forms of idolatry. Because of this belief Protestants started to perform iconoclasm, which is the destruction of images for religious purposes. What was not understood, however, was that the art was meant to get the ideas of Christ across to illiterate people.
Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss Reformer who introduced Protestantism to Switzerland and the one who broke Zürich away from Rome. He believed that transubstantiation, Catholic belief that the bread and wine is turned into the literal body and blood of Jesus by the priest at Mass, is just symbolic. Alongside Calvin, Zwingli also encouraged iconoclasm.
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
It was under the teachings of Luther and Zwingli that the Anabaptists started, but both Luther and Zwingli did approve of their doctrines (in fact, the Anabaptists faced backlash from both Protestants and Catholics). The main belief of the Anabaptists was that they emphasized the baptism of adults and rejected the baptism of infants. Other beliefs included confessing your sin and faith in God publicly and the separation of church and state.
John Knox, Scottish follower of John Calvin, dominated the religious reform in Scotland and founded the religious group of Presbyterians (Scottish Calvinists). He, as well as many other important Protestant figures, believed in the priesthood of all believers.
The Peace of Augsburg (1555) and the Edict of Nantes (1598)
In the German states, both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism were being practiced. As a way to settle the scuffle of religious conflict, the Peace of Augsburg (1555) was enacted. This stated the idea of "Whose realm, his religion", which meant that whichever prince is ruling over a specified region, he will choose the religion for that region (whether Lutheran or Catholic). Similarly, in France, what was established was the Edict of Nantes (1598), which provided religious toleration for the Huguenots (French Protestants).
The English Reformation
King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
The English Reformation first started when England's ruler, Henry VIII, tried his best to receive an annulment of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon from the Pope of the Catholic Church. After the Pope did not grant Henry's wish, Henry broke England away from the Catholic Church and converted the country to Protestantism (although he still had some ties to Catholic belief). After the conversion to Protestantism, the Anglican Church (the Church of England) was established.
The Counter-Reformation was the Catholic Church's response to the Reformation.
The Council of Trent (1545-1563)
In order to deal with the "issues" brought up by Luther, the Catholic Church assembled to figure out solutions of how to stop the Reformation from spreading. The council formulated five plans:
- Affirm Church doctrine (Scripture and the Church are equal)
- Reaffirm the Seven Sacraments
- Forbid the sale of indulgences
- Better behavior of the clergy is required
- Clergy is required to be present in marriage ceremonies.
The Society of Jesus
Ignatius de Loyola (1491-1556)
The Society of Jesus, otherwise known as Jesuits, was a Catholic-based religious order founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534. The primary purpose of the group—not specifically relating to religious doctrine—was to spread Catholicism to stamp out Protestantism. Many missionaries would be at work and they would go to as far as third world countries (Asia, Africa, etc.)
How the Reformation Changed the World
First off, people now have many different views on the bible. Some examples are predestination, communion, works based salvation, etc. Secondly, people now have a greater understanding of the Bible. The Reformation had five solas that thought them about Christ. One of these solas was called Sola Scriptura. This meant that the Bible was the authority and true words of God. People took the word of God seriously. A third thing was it changed how people view the church. During the Reformation people started to look down on the popes because a lot of them was giving false information about how to get to heaven. Since this happened people started to look in the Bible to see if the information they get is true.
- Martin Luther- Was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. ✓
- Ninety-five Theses- The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences are a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther. ✓
- Diet of Worms- was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire. An imperial diet was a formal deliberative assembly of the whole Empire. ✓
- Ulrich Zwingli- Was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss. ✓
- Peace of Augsburg- 1555, temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation.✓
- Anabaptists- Christians who believe that baptism is only valid when the candidate confesses his or her faith in Christ and wants to be baptized.✓
- Henry VIII- Was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.✓
- John Calvin/Institutes of the Christian Religion- Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin's seminal work of Protestant systematic theology. ✓
- Predestination- Is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. ✓
- Huguenots- Huguenots are the nonreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition. It was used frequently to describe members of the French Reformed Church until the beginning of the 19th century.✓
- Edict of Nantes- Signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.✓
- Puritanism- Were a group of English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
- Counter-Reformation- Was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent✓
- Council of Trent- Was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation. ✓
- Ignatius de Loyola- Also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.✓
- Jesuits- A Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works, once regarded by many as the principal agent of the Counter-Reformation, and later a leading force in modernizing the church.✓
- Gutenberg- Was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. ✓
- Protestant- Is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church ✓
- Presbyterian- Relating to or denoting a Christian Church or denomination governed by elders according to the principles of Presbyterianism.✓
- John Knox- Was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the Reformation and is considered the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.✓
- William Tyndale- Was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English. ✓
- Anglican Church- The Church of England and the churches in other nations that are in complete agreement with it as to doctrine and discipline and are in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Iconoclasm- Is the destruction of religious icons and other images or monuments for religious or political motives. ✓
- Baroque- A period in the arts, visual and musical, from about 1600 to about 1750, marked by elaborate ornamentation and efforts to create dramatic effects.
- Holy Roman Empire- Was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
- Lucas Cranach the Elder- Was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits.
- Quinten Massys/The MoneyChanger and His Wife- Was a painter in the Flemish tradition and a founder of the Antwerp school. He was born at Leuven, where legend states he was trained as an ironsmith before becoming a painter.
- El Greco/The Burial of Count Orgaz- Most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
- Rembrandt- Was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker. A prolific and versatile master across three media, he is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the world.
- Albrecht Durer- Was a painter, printmaker, and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, due to his high-quality woodcut prints.
- Peter Paul Reuben- Was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school.
- Johann Sebastian Bach- Was a musical composer; considered the greatest musician of Western music
- Georg Friedrich Handel- Was a German, later British baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas.
- John Wycliffe- Was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, and seminary professor at Oxford. He was an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century. ✓
- John Huss- Was a Czech priest, philosopher, Master at Charles University in Prague, church reformer and a key predecessor to Protestantism.
- Five Solas- Solus Christus is the teaching that Christ is the only mediator between God and man, and that there is salvation through no other. ✓
- Max Weber- Was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist whose ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research.
- Sigmund Freud- Was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.