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OBLIKE ZA NOVO DEMOKRACIJO BOJANA ČAMPA & STANE JERŠIČ

There is no culture without people, and no architecture without culture. Both reflect the given society, with architecture, especially, reflecting the spirit of the community and the age. Plečnik, Fabiani and Vurnik were all aware that spaces and architectural forms can open up future possibilities and give rise to new visions and perspectives.

Ni kulture brez ljudi in arhitekture brez kulture. Oboje odraža obraz družbe, znotraj katerega ravno arhitektura najbolj opazno zrcali duha skupnosti in časa. Fabiani, Plečnik in Vurnik so se zavedali, da tako prostori kot oblike odpirajo pot v prihodnost, dajejo nova videnja in različne perspektive pogledov.

“Forms for a new democracy” is based on the idea that architecture helps create our identity, shaping the underlying character of society and the messages it conveys. At a symbolic level the term is also committed both to Tomáš G. Masaryk’s vision of a new democracy (democratisation and greater social cohesion) and the European democracy of the present time.

Oblike za novo demokracijo izhajajo iz ideje, da s pomočjo arhitekture oblikujemo svojo lastno identiteto, značaj družbe in njeno sporočilnost. Hkrati pa je naslov na simbolni ravni vpet med idejo o novi demokraciji, ki jo je zagovarjal Tomáš G. Masaryk (demokratizacija in večja povezanost med ljudmi), in evropsko demokracijo današnjega časa.

FABIANI PLEČNIK VURNIK

Ideja o poudarjanju pomena tudi majhnih narodov znotraj širšega evropskega prostora je pomembno vplivala na Plečnika (ki ga je Masaryk osebno povabil v Prago, da prenovi monarhistične Hradčane v novo slovansko, demokratično zasnovano predsedniško rezidenco) in Vurnika. Očiten je bil vpliv panslovanskega gibanja, ki si je prizadeval za široko demokratično narodnostno politiko.

Plečnik, who had been invited by Masaryk to renovate the once royal Hradčany Castle and transform it into a new Slavic, democratically designed presidential residence, was deeply influenced by the idea of emphasising the importance of small nations within the wider European arena, as was Vurnik. The influence of the Pan-Slavic movement, with its goal of achieving a broad, democratic, national polity, can be clearly seen.

Če strnemo razmišljanja vseh treh arhitektov, lahko izluščimo osnovno sporočilo, da se demokratičnost družbe začne z idejo, se realizira v arhitekturi, živi z razvojem družbe in nadaljuje z ohranjanjem dediščine.

If we were to summarise the thoughts of the three architects, their basic message would be that democracy in society begins with an idea, is embodied in architecture, is brought to life in the development of society, and continues with the preservation of heritage.

»Za razumevanje arhitekturnega izraza je najpomembnejša resničnost njenih oblik.«

»The most important thing when it comes to understanding architectural expression is the authenticity of its forms.«

MAKS FABIANI

Max Fabiani was not only an architect, landscape architect, painter, author, innovator, humanist, traveller and politician, but also taught at the University of Vienna and was the first architect of his day to also gain a doctorate in urban planning.

Maks Fabiani je bil prvi arhitekt svojega časa z doktoratom iz urbanizma; univerzitetni profesor na Dunaju, krajinski arhitekt, slikar, pisatelj, inovator, humanist, popotnik, politik in vizionar.

Po študiju, ustvarjanju in profesuri na Dunaju se je Fabiani vrnil na rodni Kras. Med obema vojnama je bil župan Štanjela, kjer je načrtoval celotno prenovo vasi s čudovitim Ferrarijevim vrtom, ki je še dandanes eden najlepših spomenikov krajinske arhitekture v Evropi.

After many years studying, practising and teaching in Vienna, Fabiani returned to his native Karst. As mayor of Štanjel between the two world wars he designed a comprehensive regeneration of the village, including the stunning Ferrari Garden, which remains one of the most beautiful examples of landscape architecture in Europe.

»Stavba mora spregovoriti, v vsaki stavbi mora biti neka misel, zastrto znamenje, podobno, kot so to počeli že stari.«

»A building must speak. Into every building we must instil an idea, a veiled sign, just as the ancients did.«

JOŽE PLEČNIK

Born in Ljubljana, though with roots in the Karst region, Jože Plečnik was a mystic, a Pygmalion, holder of an honorary doctorate from the Technical University of Vienna, and by far the most distinctive personality among the three pioneers of Slovenian architecture.

Jože Plečnik, častni doktor Tehnične visoke šole na Dunaju, mistik, Pigmalion in zagotovo najbolj nenavadna osebnost med tremi pionirji slovenske arhitekture. Človek kraševskih korenin, a rojen Ljubljančan.

S premišljenimi posegi v mestno tkivo, z mostovi, preureditvijo ulic in parkov je mesto z baročnimi in secesijskimi poudarki spremenil v slovensko prestolnico.

Plečnik used his own architectural creations to enhance the existing city layouts and, with his carefully thought-out interventions – from bridges over the Ljubljanica River to new arrangements of streets and parks – he ultimately transformed the city into a true capital with baroque and Viennese Secession features.

Plečnik je bil soustanovitelj Ljubljanske šole za arhitekturo med obema vojnama; velik ljubitelj presežkov v umetnosti, jasnih tlorisnih zaporedij, skrite simbolike in arhitekture kot celostne umetnine.

Plečnik co-founded the Department of Architecture at the University of Ljubljana and was passionate about outstanding artistic achievement, clear ground plans and hidden symbolism, and viewed architecture as a total work of art.

»Polnovredno delo opravlja arhitekt le tedaj, če je njegov duh svež, če je njegova misel jasna in če je voljan za dobro delo zastaviti svojo duševno moč.«

»An architect can only create a fully-fledged piece of work if his spirit is fresh, his thought is clear, and he is willing to put all his mental strength into it.«

IVAN VURNIK

Ivan Vurnik was the youngest of the three pioneers of contemporary Slovenian architecture, and was committed to functionalism and the development of what became known as the “national style” in Slovenian architecture, as well as to teaching.

Najmlajši med tremi pionirji slovenske sodobne arhitekture je bil Ivan Vurnik, vpet med iskanje slovenskega narodnega sloga, funkcionalizem in dolgoletno pedagoško delo. Bil je je profesor, ki je vzgojil številne mlade arhitekte povojne generacije.

Velik del svojega raziskovanja in umetniškega ustvarjanja je Vurnik posvetil iskanju slovenskega narodnega sloga (oz. nacionalne romantike), ki je obsegal dve varianti: prvo s slikano dekoracijo in drugo s plastično štukaturo.

Vurnik devoted much of his research and creativity to the development of what became known as the “national style” or “national romanticism”. This included two elements: painted decoration and stucco relief.

Sokolski dom je Vurnik zasnoval v smislu monumentalne organske celote z osrednjo veliko dvorano kot matično celico.

The Sokol Hall was designed as an organic, monumental whole with a large central hall constituting the core of the building.

O knjigi:

»Posebna dragocenost pričujoče knjige je zato prav v zanosni in likovno navdušujoči predstavitvi rojstva slovenske sodobne arhitekture in njenega, v bodočnost zapisanega in usmerjenega poslanstva.«

Marko Mušič, akademik in arhitekt

»This book therefore sets out to present the inspiring and visually enchanting birth of Slovenia’s contemporary architecture and its future-oriented mission.« Marko Mušič, academician and architect
Book

BOJANA ČAMPA & STANE JERŠIČ