In the mid 1800's women had little rights. They could not vote, talk in conventions, and everything they owned was their husbands. Many were also unemployed. To fix these problems, there was a movement that was created (women's right movement). A convention held about this was The Seneca Falls Convention, which demanded equality for women at work, school, church, and voting.
A teacher named Dorthea Dix agreed to teach Sunday school at a prison. What she saw was horrifying. There was cruel treatment to the prisoners, terrible cell conditions, and innocent people with mental diseases. She wrote to the state legislature which outlawed cruel punishments and established mental hospitals.
The Temperance Movement is arguably the least important movement. It was an attempt to stop alcohol abuse because it linked backed to crimes. Maine banned the distribution of alcohol and other states followed. The laws we're repealed later on, and now has little to no effect on the present day America.