The definition of genetics is the studying of genes
"Father of Genetics" A man named Gregor Mendel is considered the “Father of Genetics”. He spent his time as an Austrian monk who took care of the garden at the monastery where he resided. He began to observe the pea plants in the garden and would see how they would bloom as different colors. He began to get curious to find out why they bloomed as different colors. So his experiments began. He bred different flowers to see what kinds of colors and patterns could come about. He kept records of his experiments and soon noticed generations later of the repeating patterns that would take place in the offspring of the plants he would cross breed. This is basically how genetics was born and came to be.
Genotypes and Phenotypes
Each organism has a genotype and phenotype. The genotype is basically the genetic makeup of an organism and shows the patterns of our genes and alleles. The phenotypes is what we see physically. For example, if we are talking about someone's eye color and the genotype for their eye color is TT, then their phenotype would be described as brown eyes.
Blood type can also be determined by a punnett square. There are four blood types: A, B, AB, O, all of which can be positive or negative. The genotype of blood type A is IAIA for heterozygous and IAi for homozygous. The genotype of blood type B is IBIB for heterozygous and IBi for homozygous. The genotype for blood type for AB is IAIB, there is no homozygous for this gene. The genotype for blood type O is ii, there is no heterozygous for this gene either.
Karyotypes are the profile or identity of a person(chromosomally). Chromosomes are lined up and arranged in their pairs according to their size. Putting the chromosomes in order helps geneticists figure out if there are any alterations or mutations that could lead to a genetic disorder. The way you make a karyotype is taking a photo of all the chromosomes found in a cell, then cutting them out and arranging them in the order they are supposed to go(smallest to largest)
There are charts that are similar to family trees that track inheritance patterns through the generations of families and show who currently possesses or possessed a certain trait that could be totally normal and common in a family or not. These are called pedigree charts, You can only see on trait on a chart at a time, so if you wanted to look at two different traits, you would have to make two charts.
Squares equal males and circles equal females
Traits being represented or found in the person are shown as shaded in and if a person does not possess the trait, then the shape will not be shaded in.