Sub-Saharan Africa Social Protection

This video is from 2012 which is around when the social protection policies were first implemented. Since this time the policies have expanded to other countries that believe social protections really will benefit them.

Inclusive development is currently a priority for Sub Saharan Africa, inclusive development meaning "a pattern and pace of development in which the poor and most vulnerable groups participate and which is characterized by income growth as well as decreasing inequality in both income and non-income dimensions of wellbeing." The basic factors of this are economic transformation, productive employment creation and social protection.

Social protection seems to be the most prominent way they are trying to better the way of life for citizens. It plays a very big role in achieving inclusive development, being linked to it through effects, such as the reduction of inequality, increased labour participation, productive assets protection and accumulation, human capital development, and the strengthening of social and collective citizenship rights, institutions and (local) economic multiplier effects.

"national governments are often reluctant to introduce comprehensive social protection programmes as these require a reallocation of resources and are often considered too expensive. There is, therefore, a need for evidence-based arguments to convince policy-makers that investing scarce resources in social protection programmes is a cost-effective exercise in the long term because of their impact on poverty reduction and social mobility. "

All over the continent of Africa, governments have agreed that social security and social protection are key areas that labour movements in Africa must focus on to improve the welfare of the labour force. Social protection interventions implemented in Africa include direct welfare programmes (conditional and unconditional cash transfers, school feeding programmes, food aid), productivity enhancing programmes (work programmes, subsidies) and market interventions (price controls).

Examples of the social protections impact are seen in Ghana where the cash-transfer programme has led to an increase in savings and a reduction in loan holdings, enabled beneficiaries to re-establish or strengthen social networks, led to increase in household heads who feel happy about their life, increased school enrollment among secondary school-aged children, reduced grade repetition among both primary and secondary school-aged children, and reduced absenteeism among primary school-aged children. Though secondary school is limited to boys but a greater positive impact in attendance is seen among girls. It was also found that low exposure to the social protections program didn't improve incomes, high exposure to intervention seemed to have positive effects on food security, business development, and to the adoption of technology. More research groups made the observations that follow:

Social Protection in Uganda: This research compares the cost-effectiveness of the Social Assistance Grants for Empowerment (SAGE), Early Childhood Development Programme, Public Works Programme and Food Assets Program (FFA) in Uganda. The evidence generated will guide decisions on expansion of the SAGE programme. The research group partners are: Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development, Uganda; Makerere University, Uganda; Maastricht University (MU), the Netherlands; and University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
 Post Trauma Services in Uganda: This research compares the cost-effectiveness of cash transfers on their own with cash transfers combined with other complementary interventions (i.e., post trauma-related health and psycho-social support) and support through radio and social media. The aim is to generate evidence on a combination of interventions that would be cost effective for economic empowerment and facilitate the inclusion of women in post-conflict contexts. The research group partners are: Isis-Women’s International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE), Uganda; Makerere and Mbarara Universities, Uganda; and Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
 Weather Insurance for Ethiopian Farmers: This study examines the cost effectiveness of including agricultural weather insurance as an additional component of the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), as opposed to providing the beneficiaries of the PSNP with an additional cash transfer. The findings are expected to be useful for policy-makers in their ongoing efforts to expand and improve the PSNP. The research group partners are: Mekelle University, Ethiopia; Relief Society of Tigray, Ethiopia; Nyala Insurance Share Company, Ethiopia; Lingnan University (LU), Hong Kong; Wageningen University and Research Centre, the Netherlands; and Columbia University, USA.
 Social Protection in the Afar Region: This study evaluates the effectiveness of the PSNP and other social protection interventions in the Afar region on poverty reduction, risk minimization, food security and livelihood improvement. The aim is to generate evidence of alternative social protection interventions that can contribute to inclusive development in pastoral communities. The research group partners are: Adigrat University (ADU), Ethiopia; the Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of Africa (PENHA), United Kingdom; and University College London (UCL), United Kingdom.
 Social health protection in Ghana and Kenya: This research aims to generate knowledge on the effectiveness of cash transfer programmes and social health protection policies by comparing cash transfers to fee waivers (Kenya) and health insurance (Ghana). It also seeks to establish the complementarity of the two interventions and how the accumulation of health-related human capital and its spill-over effects contribute to inclusive development. The research group partners are: University of Ghana and University for Development Studies, Ghana; University of Nairobi, Kenya; Hochschule BonnRhein-Sieg and European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), Germany; and University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
 Free healthcare versus health insurance in Kenya: This study looks at the cost-effectiveness of the free maternal healthcare offered in public health facilities in Kenya and the Community Healthcare Plan (TCHP) health insurance programme in Nandi County, Kenya. It focuses on assessing the effectiveness of targeting, quality of care, utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure of the two approaches to healthcare provision interventions. The research group partners are: African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC), Kenya; Health Policy Project, Kenya; and Amsterdam Institute for International Development (AIID) and PharmAccess Foundation, the Netherlands.
 Maternity Fee Waivers in Kenya: This research compares the cost-effectiveness of vouchers targeting vulnerable women to the free maternity care provided in public health facilities in Kenya. It considers the impact of the two interventions on maternal and child health in Kenya and how the link between the interventions and other social support systems works. The research group partners are: Ministry of Health, Kenya; Maseno University, Kenya; and Tropical and Public Health Institute Swiss (TPH) and University of Bern, Switzerland.

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