Chapter 29 Neural Control

Central Nervous System: the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System: the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves, and efferent nerves or motor nerves.

Autonomic Nervous System-.the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes.

Sensory Neuron: nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses. For example, some sensory neurons respond to tactile stimuli and can activate motor neurons in order to achieve muscle contraction.
Interneuron: a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc.
motor neuron is a neuron whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose axon projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands
neuromuscular junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.
Acetylcholine is a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system respectively. They are the fight hormones that are released when the body is under extreme stress. During stress, much of the body's energy is used to combat imminent danger.
Synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
White matter is composed of bundles of axons, which connect various gray matter areas of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Gray matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, glial cells, synapses, and capillaries.
Cerebral cortex- the outer layer of the cerebrum, composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum

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