Biotechnology Project Meagan Sikes

CLONING

  • Cloning is the process of making identical copies of a cell or an organism (ex. when a cell replicates itself asexually without genetic alternation).
  • It is currently being used. It has been used to create "Dolly the Sheep". It took 227 tries.
  • Cloning has caused ethical controversy. It's considered the making and destruction of human life.

Cloning continued:

Benefits: Cloning can make new foods and new genes genetically to develop stronger generations of animals and food.

Problems: Not all characteristics can be duplicated. Scientists would have to pick whitchccharacteristis would be duplicated, and what would be lost. Cloning is also frowned upon by many religions.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMO)

GMO'S

A GMO is the result of a laboratory process where genes from the DNA of on species are removed and forced into the genes of a different plant or animal.

GMO's are currently being used (mostly in foods like vegetables) to make them bigger, more nutritious, and appealing to the eye.

GMO's Continued

Benefits: Bigger and more food.

Problems: We don't know what exactly is in the food. It could be harmful to our bodies and the earth.

STEM CELL RESEARCH

Stem cells are cells that can be made into any type of cell needed.

Research says that it's harder for stem cells in adults to change their form

With stem cell research, scientists could find a cure for many diseases, but in order to do this, it involves the destruction of a human embryo.

DNA FINGERPRINTING

DNA fingerprinting is a unique way to "keep track of people."

Everyone has their own unique fingerprint. This can be used to identify people. With DNA fingerprinting, we can solve crime scenes with a single fingerprint.

DNA Fngerprinting Continued

Benefits: We can solve crime scenes easily with a fingerprint.

Problems: This is an invasion of personal information and has many ethical issues.

PERSONAL ANCESTRY/ PATERNITY KITS
"A paternity test establishes genetic proof whether a man is the biological father of an individual, and a maternity test establishes whether a woman is the biological mother of an individual."

Ancestry kits can be used to track your family history to see your ancestors.

PCR andGel Electrophoresis
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge. separate proteins by charge.

It is used in clinical chemistry to separate proteins by charge and/or size (IEF agarose, essentially size independent) and in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate a mixed population of DNA and RNA fragments by length, to estimate the size of DNA and RNA fragments.

TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS

This process is also known as “genetic engineering.” Genes of one species can be modified, or genes can be transplanted from one species to another. Genetic engineering is made possible by recombinant DNA technology. Organisms that have altered genomes are known as transgenic.

Benefits: Development of pest-tolerant plants can increase production.

Problems: Not enough is known about whether pesticides built into plants are safe for human consumption.

Cited Sources:

  • http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/gm/harmful.html
  • http://school.eb.com.scsl.idm.oclc.org/levels/high/search/iguide?query=Stem%20cell%20research%20adults%20vs%20embryonic&includeLevelOne=1&page=1
  • https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/stem-cells/
  • https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/5.ht
  • http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/65420.aspx
  • https://c.mfcreative.com/email/newsletters/amu/2013/1113/AncestryDNA101.pdf
  • http://school.eb.com.scsl.idm.oclc.org/levels/high/article/stem-cell/398729
  • http://www.maizecdna.org/outreach/tpe.html

Credits:

Created with images by artursfoto - "modified tomato genetically"

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