Biotechnologyproject By: BLake yoder

Cloning, the process of generating a genetically identical of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens all the time in nature. It is currently used now but it still in progress for the future. Some ethical issues are it would end the uniqueness of an individual and at least 95% of mammalian cloning experiments have resulted in failures in the form of miscarriages, stillbirths, and life-threatening anomalies. Genetic cloning can provide genetically related children for people who cannot be helped for they're fertility treatment. Reproductive cloning causes children, and of people in general, as objects that can be designed and manufactured to possess specific characteristics. The reproductive cloning technology is Somatic cell nuclear transfer, used to produce a genetically identical organism. You have to copy the genome to make the person have the same genetic information.

organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. Currently used now in present time.organisms in which genes from another organism are inserted into the targeted organism's DNA, have the potential to both positively and negatively affect the environment and human health. Some benefits are resistance to heat, cold or drought and crop yield. Some problems are allergies and cancer.gene gun, or particle gun, uses microscopic pellets of gold or tungsten,These pellets are coated in the DNA that is being transferred to the new organism.

Stem research adult,Stem Cell Research is an important, but highly controversial practice. It has the potential to aid in a multitude of medicinal issues. There seem to be three opinions on the matter. First, some people are all for stem cell research. Second, some people are blatantly against it. Third, some just don't want embryos tested on. The third group would rather voluntary adult donors give up stem cells that scientists could research. There is an issue with this though. Stem cells taken from an adult are thought to only be able to turn into different cell types of their tissue of origin. This limits the potential for research with just a couple of different tissue samples. Stem research embryonic Embryonic stem cell research is much more versatile. While adult stem cells can only turn into different cell types of their original tissue, embryonic stem cells can become any type of cell. Embryonic and adult stem cell research is currently going on. Scientists use stem cells to recreate damaged tissues and grow different cell types. These new cells are introduced to live tissue as a form of remedy for damaged tissue. Both used in the future.

DNA fingerprinting is a useful tool. It allows forensic scientist to discover the identity of the unidentifiable. For example, an assailing in a mask robs someone but leaves a fingerprint on the doorknob to their home. The forensic scientists that work with the police department can use that individual's fingerprint and DNA to get a positive identification for the suspect. This is based upon the fact that no two people share the same genetic code. The process of DNA fingerprinting is done by introducing enzymes to a sample of DNA. These enzymes cut the DNA so they may be tested using a technique called electrophoresis.DNA plays a huge role in crime scene investigation. Any trace evidence of DNA whether it be a hair, saliva deposit, or any other form of human byproduct can be tested to identify a suspect. Though DNA is usually very accurate when it comes to conviction rates, this isn’t always the case. For example, if a suspect has an identical twin, they will both become suspects in an investigation. Another issue is the topic of Planetary ted evidence and potential framing. What I mean by this is that a person could easily plant locks of hair or other forms of DNA evidence on a crime scene. This ends in false convictions and suffering. Used in present time

Personal ancestry kits allow a person to use their own genetic Information to discover where they descend from. For example, an ancestry kit might let a person know they are 40 percent African, 25 percent European, and 35 percent Asian. These kits also give you the ability to see if you have a family history of certain diseases or disorders. This would in turn help in treating or preventing said disease. Paternity kits serve a much different yet useful purpose. These kits allow a person to test their DNA against a child's to find out if they are the biological parent or not. Used in present time

PCR AND GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

P.C.R. , or the polymerase chain reaction, is used to multiply a specific DNA strand sample in order to better study it. This is a very beneficial scientific process that allows a scientists to test a piece of DNA, yet prevents said scientists from ruining the initial sample. This reaction aids in the pursuit of new developments in the study of genetics by lowering the difficulty level so to speak. What I mean by this is that it allows a scientist multiple attempts at manipulating a gene without the worry that comes with only having one shot. The polymerase chain reaction is a process that is used in medicinal and forensic fields right now.Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate mixtures of DNA, rna, or proteins based on molecular size. The process works by using an electrical field to push molecules through a gel that has small pores in it. The electrical field is negatively charged while the gel has a positive charge. DNA molecules have a negative charge, so they are pulled to the gel and further repelled by the electrical field. This process is used for all sorts of different areas at involve genetic study. Currently used in present time.

Plasmids are parts of cell that can replicate independently from the chromosomes. They are commonly used in the manipulation of genes. They can be easily found in bacterium as shown, or protozoan organisms. Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been “recombined” using traits from different organisms. Recombinant DNA is used in organism manipulation, like making glowing pigs with fluorescent genes for example. Transgenic organisms are organisms that have had the genes of other organisms added to them. Because of this they act differently and help scientists research the effects of gene manipulation.used in present time

Citations: scdiscus.org

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