SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS Claim, Evidence, Reasoning

claim - what you think you know


  • A one or two sentence response to the question being asked. Write directly, clearly, and precisely.
  • The claim answers the original question by expressing what you want the audience to understand or believe.
  • A hypothesis about the results of an investigation describing the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is also a claim.
evidence - How you know


  • Evidence is scientific data or facts used to support your claim.
  • Evidence can come from readings, lectures, investigations, observations, or research.
  • Evidence can be qualitative or quantitative, but must be appropriate and sufficient.
reasoning - Why your evidence supports your claim


  • Your reasoning justifies why the evidence supports the claim.
  • Reasoning can also include why the evidence you chose to emphasize is the correct evidence.
  • Reasoning should include references to scientific knowledge and theories.
  • Use logic, analogies, and examples to show the link from the evidence to the claim.

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