Southern Africa Pages 377~396


Land forms and Bodies of Water

  1. Along with Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia, and Botswana, Angola and South Africa rank in the top 25 percent of the world's countries in land area.
  2. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west.
  3. Along with Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia, and Botswana, Angola and South Africa rank in the top 25 percent of the world's countries in land area.


  1. If Southern Africa's physical geography had to be described with one word, that word would be high.
  2. The plateau's outer edges form a steep slope called the Great Escarpment.
  3. South of the Kalahari Desert, much of the rest of Southern Africa is covered by a huge plateau that slopes from about 8,000 feet in the east to 2,000 feet in the west.

Bodies of Water

  1. Zambezi
  2. Limpopo
  3. Orangedrain
“Which type of landform is common in Southern Africa?”
  • Plateaus

Climate- Tropical Zones

  1. Temperatures range from the upper 60s.
  2. Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate.

Temperature Zones

  1. Annual rainfall varies from 8 inches (20 cm) in some areas to 24 inches (61 cm) in others.
  2. In the region, most of this rain falls in the summer.

Desert Regions

  1. In some years no rain falls.
  2. Temperatures along small plants with the moisture they need to survive.
  3. In inland areas of the Namib Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80 degrees Fahrenheit to more than 100 degree Fahrenheit.
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa’s tropical countries generally not hot?
  • Because of the elevation level.

Natural resources

What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?
  • They have mineral resources and it helps build a strong economy.

South Africa's resources

  1. It is the world's largest producer of platinum, chromium, and gold, and one of the largest producer of diamonds- both gems and industrial diamonds, or diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools.
  2. These resources, along with important deposits of coal, iron ore,uranium,copper, and other minerals, have created a thriving mining industry.
A resource

Energy Resources

  1. Oil and gas must be refined, or changed into other products, before they can be used.
  2. The region's rivers are another resource for providing power.

Minerals and Other Resources

  1. Gold is a leading export for Zambabwe.
  2. Malawi's most important natural resource is its fertile soil.
  3. In the 1990s, rebels captured Angola's mines and sold the diamonds to continue a 20-year-old civil war against the government.
South Africa's mineral wealth


  1. Wildebeests, lions, zebras,giraffes,and many other animals are found across the region.


History of Southern Africa

Rise of Kingdoms

  1. Southern Africa indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  1. Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and power kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
  2. By the 1300s, the Great Zimbabwe had become a great commercial center, collecting gold mined nearby and trading it to Arabs at ports on the Indian Ocean.

The Mutapa Empire

  1. In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  2. The Portugesse arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500s.

Other Kingdoms

  1. A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600s to the 1800s.
  2. In the early 1800s, one king allied with the British on the nearby island of Mauritius to prevent the French from taking control of Madagascar.

European Colonies

  1. Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  1. During the 1600s till about the 1800s, Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies, which are large territories with settlers from the home country.

The Union of South Africa

  1. In the 1860s, the Boers discovered diamonds in their territory.

Colonialism in Other Areas

  1. Germany recived what is now Namibia, alothough South Africa seized the colony during World War I.
Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?
  • Britain

Independence and equal rights

  1. Britain granted independence to Malawi and Zambia in 1964 and to Botswana and Lesotho in 1966.

The end of portuguese rule

  1. Portuguese military leaders overthrew Portugal's government and pulled the troops out of Africa.

the birth of zimbabwe

  1. The colony's white leaders, who controlled the government, instead formed a country they called Rhodesia and continued to rule it.

Equal Rights in south africa

  1. English South Africans controlled the government until the of World War II.
  2. The new government leaders began enacting laws that created a system called apartheid.
  3. In 1995 the new government created a truth and reconciliation commission.

Lesson 3

Life in southern Africa

The people in the region

  1. In almost every other country, whites and Asians make up less than 1 percent of the population.

Population patterns

  1. Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  2. Population depends heavily on geography and economics.
  3. Surprisingly, Malawi is also Southern Africa's most rural nation.

Ethnic and Culture groups

  1. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages.
  2. About 4 million Tswana from the major population group in Botswana.
  3. Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illustrate an important point about Southern Africa's history.

Religion and languages

  1. In Angola, however, nearly half the population continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
  2. Portuguese remains the official language in Angola and Mozambique.
What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?
  • Christianity

Life in southern africa

  1. As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

Urban life

  1. South Africa has four city's-Durban, Ekurhuleni, Cape Town, and Johannesburg-with populations of around 3 million or more.

Urban growth and change

  1. The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities services such as trash collection,sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  2. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20 percent of the city's population live.
  3. At least 12 languages are heard on city streets.

Family and traditional life

  1. Rural villages are often small- consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses.
  2. People in the countryside practice subsidence farming growing the need to survive.
Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?
  • The countryside

Southern Africa Today

  1. Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.

Health Issues

  1. In the majority of countries, most people do not live beyond age 50-55.


  1. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world.
  2. The high HIV/AIDS has distributed the labor force by depriving countries of needed workers.
  3. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.

Progress and Growth

  1. Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communication systems.
  2. Oil exports in Angola and aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.

Help from other countries

  1. Countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.
  2. The U.S. has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in South Africa.
Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?
  • HIV/AIDS, disease, and malnutrition.


Created with images by Sponchia - "lion portrait animal portrait" • Jorge Lascar - "Canals of Amsterdam" • Jon's pics - "Plague Cottages. Eyam, Derbyshire" • ccwg - "Environment pollution causes dieases" • PublicDomainPictures - "achievement bar business" • DFID - UK Department for International Development - "Working within the community"

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