The Casing - The casing provides a hard shell to keep the parts inside of the camera protected from damage as well as holding all of the parts together. It also prevents light from getting into the camera, when light enters it can contaminate the film.
The Shutter - The shutter opens and closes when the user is taking a photo. It controls how much light can enter so the film does not become overly exposed.
The Lens - The lens redirects beams of light and the objects being taken a picture of producing it to be copied onto the film, making an identical scene on the film to the real life scene.
The Film - The film is a light sensitive emulsion on a piece of plastic, when light reflected back at the camera due to lens hits the emulsion it records the photo.
The Flash Circuit - The flash circuit is what is responsible for creating the flash of the camera. It allows a small flash of bright light when the shutter opens, making it easier for the lens to reflect light of off objects. The battery of the flash circuit allows there to be energy released into the circuit.
The Gas Discharge Tube - The gas discharge tube conducts and electrical current by moving electrons allowing there to be a flash in the camera.