Europe, the World, and the Arts Katherine Ryschkewitsch | EUH2001 - 17Spring 0W58

Instructor Commentary: Enlightenment Thought and Inquiry

This is a PDF source that contains summarized information of the Enlightenment and the thought and inquiry that arose form it.

The Enlightenment had a strong impact on the arts during the end of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth. The arts began to move towards Neoclassicism in art and architecture with an emphasis on clean lines and purity of classicism.

The art of Jacques Louis David, one of the most famous artists of this time period.

The Enlightenment caused the arts to move more towards depictions of nationalism, patriotism, and military glory. This was probably due to the expansion into the West and the increasing superiority that European cultures felt over Asian, Indian, and Ottoman peoples.

More art that came from the Enlightenment period with an emphasis on clean lines and the purity of classicism.

Enter the Dragon: The Beginnings of English Chinoiserie 1680-1710

Enter the Dragon is a museum site that allows one to go look at items influenced by Chinese artistic traditions in England during the 18th century. This site has a vast amount of examples that demonstrate the extent on how the Chinese artistic style influenced European design.

Various examples of the Chinoiserie style implemented in European design during the eighteenth century.

The influence of Chinese art is especially evident in European porcelain and tableware design. While the Europeans were infatuated with the art style, their imitation was more about creating their own version of it instead of trying to recreate it accurately or learn the significance behind certain motifs that were used.

The site also goes into detail of showing that while the art style was heavily influenced by the Chinese, English artists tended to mix various Asian cultures and motifs together in their designs. For example, they would use Japanese motifs in the design but use the Chinese style.

Examples of the influence of the Chinese art style on English porcelain and how the English adopted the style but did not stay true to all the stylistic characteristics of the style and instead created an imitation of it.

Goya & The Spanish Enlightenment

This site gives details of the life and works of one of the most important Spanish painters of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: Francisco de Goya.

During the eighteenth century, Spain entered a period of Enlightenment. During this time, the Bourbon kings of Spain were in power and their establishment of trade as well as the increase in Spain's wealth due to mining gold and silver in Mexico and Peru, allowed for more artist commissions in Spain.

Portraits by Francisco de Goya of the Spanish aristocracy.

Near the end of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century, Spain entered into wars with France and Spanish American colonies who sought independence from the Spanish Empire. These wars brought the Spanish monarchy tumbling down and also resulted in a change in art that was produced. One of the most notable works from Goya are his series of 80 copperplate etchings titled The Disasters of War. The prints were created by Goya to document his horror and outrage at the atrocities committed by soldiers and patriots during this time.

Plates 26 and 15, respectively, from Francisco de Goya's series "The Disasters of War."

Discover Islamic Art (Ottoman Empire)

This source focuses on the Islamic artistic world under the Ottoman Empire.

The expansion of European empires and trade allowed for the Ottoman Empire to also benefit from the Europeans especially when it came to trade and artistic traditions. Much like the European desire for Chinese porcelain saw a heavy increase in popularity, so too did the Ottoman Empire experience this increase in the desire for ceramics.

Examples of textiles and ceramics that were exported form the Ottoman Empire to Europe.

The surge in popularity for goods such as ceramics and textiles benefited the economy and also introduced artists of the Ottoman Empire to European art and design. For example, Iznik potters would often draw inspiration for their designs from Italian ceramics.

Example of a Iznik plate that's design was inspired by Italian ceramics.

Works Cited

Darty, Amy. "Enlightenment Thought and Inquiry." University of Central Florida, Orlando. 05 Feb. 2017. Reading.

"Discover Islamic Art Virtual Exhibitions | The Ottomans." Discover Islamic Art Virtual Exhibitions | The Ottomans. Museum with No Frontiers, 2004. Web. 05 Feb. 2017.

"Enter the Dragon." Enter the Dragon. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2017

Voorhies, Author: James. "Francisco De Goya (1746–1828) and the Spanish Enlightenment | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Oct. 2003. Web. 05 Feb. 2017.

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