Texas Reconstruction News By: David Salvania & Paresh Grover

Recently after the Civil War, reconstruction is necessary because the South is in shambles. Reconstruction is the restoration of the South. Although, Texas was not a major battle site it was affected by supply shortages.
Lincoln's wanted the Union was rebuilt as fast as possible. Therefore he put a low bar on the terms of annexation. The law stated that at least 10% of the population of the state would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the Union. Finally they needed to nullify their ordinance of secession and abolish slavery. Unfortunately, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth and the vice presidential Andrew Johnson took the presidential office. Johnson's plan was to make each state ratify the third amendment and that the US government would not pay it's Civil War debts.

On June 19th 1895 General Gordon Granger arrived at Galveston, he was sent by the president to take control of Texas. When slaves were denounced free they celebrated and freedmen called it the Juneteenth, it's even a legal state holiday celebrated till today. After Juneteenth the Freedman's Bureau was created by congress to help slaves get education, and learn new skills.

Andrew Johnson appoints Andrew J. Hamilton as governor of Texas, he appoint him because he is a former Texas state representative who represented Texas in the congress. Hamilton wants Texas to region the Union as quickly as possible so he called for the election of delegates to a convention, all the delegates Texas had elected were Ex-Confederate leaders. This convention was biased because even Andrew J. Hamilton did not support secession but he did not favor giving African-American many rights.
Instead of writing a new constitution the delegates amended the old constitution and nullified secession and the state's war debt and abolished slavery, they added black codes to limit the rights of African-Americans. Black codes are laws that limited the rights of African-Americans. The ex-confederates refused to ratify the 13th amendment which outlawed slavery and the 14th amendment which protected the rights of African-Americans.
The Congress was made up mostly of Radical Republican and they felt that President Johnson had really less requirements for the confederate states to rejoin the Union, they also wanted to make the confederate soldiers pay. Radical Republicans are republicans who believe that Congress should be in charge of reconstruction. The Radical Republicans came into control when the south's defiance to obey reconstruction worked, then the or themes attacked President Johnson's reconstruction plan and said that it was too easy for the south. These acts strengthened the republic as in Congress
Congress separated the Confederacy by districts and put military leaders to control them. The military districts were ruled by the army until the states met certain requirements and all whit southerners took the Ironclad oath. The Ironclad oath pledged that the individual had not voluntarily supported or aided the conferate army in any way.
General Griffin allowed freedmen to vote. In 1868 approximately 50,000 freedmen were allowed to vote. Unfortunately, the KKK rose to power and they wanted to stop the freed men from having rights. The KKK opposed the Carpetbaggers and Scalawags because they helped freedmen.
Reconstruction ended in 1870 in Texas. Also white people were upset about all the mixed communities. Although most freed people lived in rural areas, many continued to live on farms. In 1872 the Democrats won the election and they began to deconstruct all the progress made.

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