Sedimentary rocks are types of rocks that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place.
This rock is called Conglomerate. Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g., granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, larger than 2 mm in diameter. Conglomerates form by the consolidation and lithification of gravel. Conglomerates typically contain finer grained sediment, e.g., either sand, silt, clay or combination of them, called matrix by geologists, filling their interstices and are often cemented by calcium carbonate, iron oxide, silica, or hardened clay.
This rock is called breccia. Breccia is a term most often used for clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of large angular fragments (over two millimeters in diameter). The spaces between the large angular fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a mineral cement that binds the rock together. Breccia forms where broken, angular fragments of rock or mineral debris accumulate. One possible location for breccia formation is at the base of an outcrop where mechanical weathering debris accumulates. Another would be in stream deposits near the outcrop such as an alluvial fan. Some breccias form as debris flow deposits.
This rock is called sandstone. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of sand-size grains of mineral, rock, or organic material. It also contains a cementing material that binds the sand grains together and may contain a matrix of silt- or clay-size particles that occupy the spaces between the sand grains. Sandstone is one of the most common types of sedimentary rock and is found in sedimentary basins throughout the world.
This rock is called siltstone. Siltstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of silt-sized particles. It forms where water, wind, or ice deposit silt, and the silt is then compacted and cemented into a rock. Silt accumulates in sedimentary basins throughout the world. It represents a level of current, wave, or wind energy between where sand and mud accumulate.
This rock is called shale. Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles that we commonly call "mud." This composition places shale in a category of sedimentary rocks known as "mudstones." Shale is distinguished from other mudstones because it is fissile and laminated. "Laminated" means that the rock is made up of many thin layers. "Fissile" means that the rock readily splits into thin pieces along the laminations.
A metamorphic rock is a type of rock which has been changed by extreme heat and pressure. Its name is from 'morph' (meaning form), and 'meta' (meaning change). The original rock gets heated (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressured (1500 bars). This causes profound physical and/or chemical change.
Slate is metamorphosed shale. Slate is tougher than shale and it breaks into thin, flat layers. Slate is usually dark gray, but it can also be red colored. Slate has been used in some countries as roofing and more recently, it has been utilized as floor tiles.
Phyllite is metamorphosed slate.It is still foliated (layered), but unlike slate, the layers are not completely flat but have a slightly undulating pattern. Phyllite also has a slightly silky appearance due to the growth of tiny mica plates oriented parallel to the foliation.
Schist is metamorphosed phyllite. The mica crystals in schists are larger than those in phyllites and so schists tend to distinctly sparkle. Mica schists often also contain garnet crystals or staurolite crystals, producing a bumpy surface. Schists might also be made of talc, kyanite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, or sillimanite.
Gneiss is metamorphosed schist. It is a highly metamorphosed that is almost a granite. It differs from schist due to the lenses of feldspar between the mica layers. The minerals in gneiss may occur either as layers (foliation) or elongated in one direction (lineation). Intensely crumpled layers are another means of identifying gneiss.
Marble is metamorphosed limestone. In the process of being metamorphosed, the limestone is recrystallized, creating a change in color and texture and the destruction of included fossils. There are hundreds of recognized commercial marble with a wide range of colors and patterns. However, since marble is calcite, it still bubbles vigorously when strong hydrochloric acid is applied to it.
Quartzite is metamorphosed sandstone. It is often difficult to distinguish it from a sandstone that has been cemented by quartz. The sand grains in quartzite are so tightly cemented together than when a rock of quartzite is broken in half. the break actually cuts the individual sand grains.
The name serpentine is used for both a mineral and a metamorphic rock. It is formed by the metamorphic transformation of olivine and pyroxene to the serpentine mineral group. Serpentine varies from a light green to a dark green color with veins and fractures. It strongly resembles some varieties of jade. It is used for flooring and tabletops.
Hornfels is a non-foliated, baked rock that is formed by contact metamorphism. The color, grain size, and mineral composition shows wide variation. Colors can range from a light gray to a dark black. The darkest colored varieties of hornfels may have have originally been dark shales, siltstones, or even basalt.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.
Original rock was slate (M), but under greater heat and pressure than slate
Original rock was sandstone