The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism CHAPTER 12

War of 1812: The War of 1812 was a military conflict that lasted from June 1812 to February 1815, fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.

Battle of New Orleans: The Battle of New Orleans was an engagement fought between January 8 and January 18, 1815, constituting the final major battle of the War of 1812, and the most one-sided battle of that war.

Congress of Vienna: The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814

Treaty of Ghent: The peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and United Kingdom.

Hartford Convention: The series of meetings from December 15, 1814 and January 5, 1815 located in Hartford, Connecticut. The meetings were for the New England Federalist Party to meet and discuss their grievances about the ongoing War of 1812.

Rush-Bagot Agreement: A treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom limiting the naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain after the War of 1812.

Tariff of 1816: The first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting the United States manufactured items from any possible foreign competition.

American System: A system consisting of three complimenting parts which include, a tariff to protect and promote the American Industry, a national bank to foster commerce, and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other internal improvements that would make agriculture more profitable.

Era of Good Feelings: The time in American history that highlighted the sense of purpose in the nation and a want desire for unity between Americans.

Panic of 1819: An event very similar to The Great Depression. Banks failed, people lost their houses and farms. This also triggered a great unemployment.

On to Canada over Land and Lakes: Americans tried to invade Canada; (Americans) When attacked by sea were more successful; Battle of the Thames in Oct. 1813

Washington Burned & New Orleans Defended: Aug. 1814 2nd British attacked Washington D.C; Burned most of the capitol (White House & Capitol): Battle of New Orleans

The Treaty of Ghent: Come to peace; December 24, 1814; Both stopped fighting & conquered territory was restored

Federalist Grievances & the Hartford Convention Massachusetts, Connecticut, & Rhode Island: 1814; Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargoes; The abolition of slavery; A President could only serve 1 term; death of the Federalist party.

The Second War for American Independence: 1812; RushBagot Agreement was made

Nascent Nationalism: Nationalism; The army and navy were expanded; U.S bank was revived in 1816

"The American System": 1st protective tariff; 1816; Strong baking system; Protective Tariff; Network of roads and canals.

The so-called Era of Good Feelings: The Federalist ran a presidential candidate for the last time; "Era of Good Feelings"; 2 political parties were getting along

Growing Pains of the West: Between 1791 and 1819, 9 states from the West had joined the United States; People moved west because of cheap land, the construction of highways, and many Indian territories had been eliminated; Land Act of 1820

Slavery and the Sectional Balance: The House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment, making it more difficult for Missouri to become a state; It did not allow for anymore slaves to be brought into Missouri and for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already in Missouri; The amendment was defeated by the slave states in Congress; Peculiar Institution, an expression used to describe slavery and its economic impacts in the South.

The Uneasy Missouri Compromise: Henry Clay introduced a compromise that decided whether or not Missouri would be admitted as a slave state; Congress decided to admit Missouri as a slave state in 1820; But, Maine, which was apart of Massachusetts, was to be admitted as a separate, free state; Therefore, there were 12 slave states and 12 free states.

Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses: Fletcher vs. Peck (1810); The Georgia legislature granted 35 million acres to private speculators; the next legislature cancelled the bribery-induced transaction; John Marshall let the state give the acres to the private speculators calling it a contract and constitutional; The decision protected property rights against popular pressures.

Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida: John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State to James Monroe; The Angle-American Convention of 1818 allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with the Canadians and provided for a 10-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country without a surrender of the rights/claims of either America or Britain.

Monroe and His Doctrine: Secretary Adams thought the British feared that the Americans would take Spanish territory in the Americas, ultimately threatening Britain's possessions in the Caribbean; Monroe Doctrine (1823), President Monroe's warning to the European powers; its two components were noncolonization and nonintervention; it had little immediate impact.

Monroe's Doctrine Appraised: The Europeans powers were offended by the Monroe Doctrine. This was in part because of America's soft military strength; President Monroe was more concerned with the security of America when he issued the Monroe Doctrine; He basically warned the Old World powers to stay away; The Doctrine thrived off nationalism; Russo-American Treaty of 1824: the Russians retreated farther north into Alaska

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