Montgomyery Bus Boycott By Nick DeMarco

A boycott is to engage in a concerted refusal to have dealings with (as a person, store, company, organization) to express disapproval or to force acceptance of certain conditions (Merriam Webster)

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was from December 5th, 1955 to December 20th, 1956. This was directed at Montogmery City Buses to protest against segregated seating. The call to action for this movement was Rosa Parks arrest that lead to discussion from African Leaders from organizations like th to NAACP to put this boycott in place.

Who Was Rosa Parks?

Rosa Parks was a African American woman who worked as a seamstress at a local department store. She served as the the head of the youth group and secretary in Montgomery for the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). She wasn't new to protesting civil rights since her husband Raymond was a member of the NAACP who ultimately influenced her to become more willing to protest. Rosa was given credit for being the first person to start the bus boycott and ultimately not give up her seat to a white person; even though it was done before by Claudette Colvin, a 15 year old student who did the same crime about nine months earlier.

I think this quote is saying to do the right thing even if society says it is wrong.

This bus boycott united the black community in Montgomery to challenge The Supreme Court. They ordered Montgomery to integrate their bus systems.

"It just killed me to leave the bus. I hated to give that white woman my seat when so many black people were standing. I was crying hard. The cops put me in the back of a police car and shut the door. They stood outside and talked to each other for a minute, and then one came back and told me to stick my hands out of the open window. He handcuffed me and then pulled the door open and jumped in the backseat with me. I put my knees together and crossed my hands over my lap and started praying." (Hoose, Colvin 35-36).

This was Claudette Colvin's experience when she got arrested for not giving up her seat to a white woman. On the way to the police station, she was mocked, cursed at, and sexually harassed.

The man who took charge of this boycott was a young Martin Luther King Jr. At the time, he was a 26 year old pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. When Parks was arrested, he met with black leaders like E.D. Nixon, and they decided that he would lead the boycott.

Since the people of Montgomery put so much pressure on the city officials and laws in the government, something had to change. On June 5th, 1956, a Montgomery court ruled that any law requiring segregation on buses, violated the 14th amendment in the Constitution.

The 14th Amendment:

This amendment has two sections but the one that applies to the Browder v. Gayle case (the bus boycott) that no state should enforce a law which will decrease the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its authority, the equal protection of the laws.

Another example of a bus boycott from the civil rights time was the Baton Rouge Bus Boycott of 1953. Some of the issues were the same like segregated seating, and having to walk to work. But what was different about this boycott was that the white bus drivers went on strike for not agreeing with the rule changes about blacks being able to sit in the front seats when white people weren't on the bus.

The bus drivers declared victory, so blacks across Baton Rouge teamed up with the UDL, and stopped riding the buses for a week. They gained victory on June 24, but had to compromise with the whites, since they could have the first two rows.

Another bus boycott that was inspired by the Montgomery Bus Boycott was the Tallahassee Bus Boycott. It was almost identical to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and the NAACP was involved.

A more modern boycott that has been going on for years is the SeaWorld Orca boycott. SeaWorld breeds and has Orca shows, but they've violated several animal welfare rights. Animal welfare activists have been fighting against SeaWorld, and attendance to these shows have dropped significantly. By 2019, all of the Orca whales from every SeaWorld will be placed in a natural habitat.

Works Cited:

Hoose, Phillip M., and Claudette Colvin. Claudette Colvin: Twice Toward Justice. New York: Melanie Kroupa /Farrar Straus Giroux, 2009. Print.

History.com Staff. "Montgomery Bus Boycott." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Com, Biography .. "Rosa Parks." Biography.com. A&E Networks Television, 18 Feb. 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Staff, New York Times. "The Big Parade: On the Road to Montgomery." The New York Times. The New York Times, 2009. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

University, Cornell. "14th Amendment." LII / Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Hartford, Bruce. "1953." Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- History & Timeline, 1953. Civil Rights Movement Veterans, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Williams, Alan. "Tallahassee Bus Boycott worth Remembering." USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, 21 May 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Howard, Brian Clark. "SeaWorld to End Controversial Orca Shows and Breeding." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 17 Mar. 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2017.

Image Citations:

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/montgomery-bus-boycott

http://www.dkfindout.com/us/history/civil-rights-movement/montgomery-bus-boycott/

https://sites.google.com/site/civilrightsmovement5413/montgomeryboycott

http://www.ezcomics.com/site/montgomery_bus_boycott_1955

https://www.f5quotes.com/9653-famous-quotes-rosa-parks

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0321.html

http://www.knowla.org/entry/1035/&view=image-gallery

http://www.waymarking.com/gallery/image.aspx?f=1&guid=5bd3337f-f08f-4e88-b47f-3afd6069cb1c

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/03/160317-seaworld-orcas-killer-whales-captivity-breeding-shamu-tilikum/

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