The Indus River Valley helped India's early societies become known. It flooded twice a year first in the spring due to how much snow it had and then in the summer because of the rain. The subcontinent was name after the Indus River. It was named Indus valley (Judge p. 45).
From 2500 and 2000 B.C.E., the Indus valley had many villages, towns, and cities. One of those were the Harappan Civilization. Farming was the Harappans civilization way of having food. Their class was known to be ruling based off of the sculptures they had. In 2000 B.C.E. the Indus valley fall off due to climate change, diseases and other causes. The Harapppan Civilization was one of those that fell apart (Judge pp. 46-47).
Although, it isn't clear that the Harappan had contact with others, clay seals and other items were found in Harappan civilization and other civilizations such as the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. That showed how that traded items (Judge p. 47).
In 2000 B.C.E. the Indus Valley declined. Some theories that historians have about the fall of this civilization is caused by diseases, climate changes, floods, earthquakes, not enough food due to rivers drying up, so people ended up leaving the cities (Judge p. 47).
In 1500 B.C.E. the Aryuns which were Indo-European pastoral nomads moved into the Indus Valley. Litlle by little they spread throughout India meeting with others that were already originally which created a blended culture. This lasted from 1500 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E. The Aryans were able to keep a strong civilization (Judge pp. 47-48).
In 1500 B.C.E. the Aryans moved into India with their horses and weapons. Their culture is often called Vedic culture which came from Vedas. Vedas are "sacred hymns composed by Aryan priests for religious rituals (Judge p. 48) Aryans had no writing so the Vedas were shown in oral form until 800 B.C.E. A writing system was form and then the Vedas were written. Although the Aryans had a religion they loved wine in music, they lived in homes where the man was the ruler, they also worshiped many gods or goddess and they also believed in life after death (Judge p. 48).
The caste systems showed where everyone was divided into. The caste system went from who had the most power to who had the least. It become so important to families because they wanted to make sure they were places above and not on the bottom where the Sudras and untouchables were (Judge p. 49).
Samsara was the belief that you will be reborn into a new body after death. Dharma represented the faithfulness you put into the duties you had and Karma was what came after death basically if you were not faithful to your duties you will be reborn in a lower stage in the caste system and if you were faithful to your duties even as an untouchable you will be reborn in a higher stage in the caste system (Judge p.50)
At the age of 29 Siddhartha Gautama went out to find out the meaning of aging, illness, and death. He created Buddha's central teaching knows as the " Four Noble Truths" which meant, "(1) Life consists of pain and suffering. (2) Pain and suffering are cause by desire. (3) To escape from suffering, one must curb desire. (4) Desire can be curbed by righteous living. (Judge p. 51) Buddhism did not believe in the caste system but Hinduism did. Unlike Buddhism, Hinduism had many beliefs, they had a flexible faith.
Ashoka began his journey violent. He then realized it was not the right path and turned Buddhist. After turning Buddhist he help build hospitals, water wells, and irrigation systems to helps others in the civilization. The difference with Ashoka and other rulers mentioned was that Ashoka followed someones else religion and help keep them going instead of trying to change it or even create his own.