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《香港国安法》将香港变成一个警察城市 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:Amnesty International《大赦国际》;28 June 2020 / 2020年6月28日

翻译/简评:毛毛猫猫;校对:海阔天空;Page:拱卒

简评:

中共国人大不顾香港民意, 无视国际社会反对,恶意推翻中共在中英联合声明中的承诺,悍然通过所谓“国安法” 使所谓“国安法”凌驾于香港基本法之上,并于2020年7月1日起在香港强行实施。这是对香港法律制度的粗暴践踏,对香港司法制度的残酷破坏,它实际上宣布了 “一国两制”的死亡。

中共国人大此次强行通过的 “国安法”完全破坏了大陆法的基本原则,赋予行政长官干预司法、指定法官暗箱操作的权利,同时也以涉及国家机密为由剥夺了新闻界和公众的监督权。所谓”国安法“中的广泛规定,还颐指气使地将其延伸并涵盖香港境外的非香港居民,严重威胁港区内外所有人的人身安全,用彭佩奥国务卿的话说:“中共国安法是对所有国家的侮辱”。 整个文明世界必须认清中共残暴政权的本质,必须团结起来共同努力将其清除,才能保护包括香港人民在内所有人应享的民主、自由和人权,维护国际社会的正常秩序。

原文:

China: National security law for Hong Kong risks turning city into police state

中共国:《香港国安法》可能会将香港变成一个警察城市

China’s national security law for Hong Kong will put everybody in the city at risk of arbitrary detention and unfair trial unless underpinned by measures to guarantee protection of human rights, Amnesty International said today as Beijing lawmakers prepare to adopt the dangerous legislation.

国际特赦组织今天表示,中共国政府为香港制定的国家安全法将使在那里的每一个人都面临被任意拘留和不公正审判的危险,除非这项法案有旨在保障人权的措施作为基础。北京的人大委员们正准备通过这项危险的法律。

Chinese authorities are expected to vote through the law at the upcoming National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) extraordinary session – which runs from today until Tuesday 30 June – despite having not yet publicly disclosed its full details.

尽管尚未公开其全部细节,但预计中共国当局将在即将举行的全国人民代表大会常务委员会(NPCSC)的特别会议上投票通过该法案,该会议将从今天起至6月30日(星期二)举行。

“Hong Kong stands at the cliff-edge of an uncertain and unsettling future, its freedoms threatened by national security legislation that could override the laws currently protecting the city’s inhabitants from the worst excesses of state-sponsored repression,” said Joshua Rosenzweig, head of Amnesty International’s China Team.

“香港正处于不确定和动荡未来的悬崖边缘,其自由受到这个港版国安法的威胁,而这些法律可能凌驾于目前正在保护该城市居民免遭中共国国家支持的最严厉的法律之上,”国际特赦组织中国事务负责人约书亚·罗森茨威格说。

“The Chinese government must abandon plans to pass a national security law for Hong Kong unless it can provide water-tight guarantees that the legislation conforms with human rights in all aspects.”

“除非中共国能够提供切实的保证以确保该立法在各个方面都符合人权,否则中共国政府必须放弃通过香港国家安全法的计划。”

Security agencies pave way for police state

国安机构为警察城市铺平道路

Under the national security law, all individuals, institutions and organizations in Hong Kong would be prohibited from “engaging in activities that endanger national security”. The NPCSC looks set to adopt it in its current session, without public consultation.

根据国家安全法,将禁止香港的任何个人、机构和组织“从事危害国家安全的活动”。全国人大常委会将在本届会议上通过该标准,而无需征询公众意见。

Amnesty International has a range of human rights concerns about the proposed law. Not least that it would authorize the Beijing central government and the Hong Kong government to set up a national security office in the city.

国际特赦组织对该拟议法律有一系列人权方面的考量。尤其重要的是,它将授权北京中央政府和香港政府在香港成立一个叫“香港国安公署”的国安机构。

“The authorities’ assertion that the national security law will only affect a tiny minority is hardly reassuring when the law includes repressive measures that could be used to target literally anyone the government chooses,” said Joshua Rosenzweig.

约书亚·罗森茨威格说:“当一部国家安全法包括可以被用来针对政府选择的任何人采取压制措施时,其只会影响到极少数人的说法几乎无法让人信服。”

On the mainland, such agencies systematically monitor, harass, intimidate and secretly detain human rights defenders and dissidents, with many indications of torture and other ill-treatment.

在中共国大陆,这些机构系统地监视、骚扰、恐吓和秘密拘留人权维护者和持不同政见者,其中许多迹象表明其存在酷刑和其他的虐待行为。

Without explicit guarantee in the law that these agencies and their personnel will be bound by the local government’s existing responsibilities to respect and protect human rights, it may be difficult – if not impossible – to hold them accountable for violations of human rights.

如果法律中没有明确保证这些国安机构及其人员将受到地方政府现有的尊重和保护人权责任的约束,那么,让他们对侵犯人权的行为负责将是一件非常困难、或者说不可能的事。

“The Hong Kong authorities are already weaponizing the local law against too many of its citizens ¬¬– a secretive national security agency simply creates more tools to crack down on human rights and risks turning the city into a police state,” said Joshua Rosenzweig.

约书亚·罗森茨威格(Joshua Rosenzweig)表示:“香港政府当局已经将很多本地法律武器化来对付其公民——一个秘密的国家安全机构只会创造更多手段来打击人权,并冒着将香港变成一个警察城市的风险。”

“The already inadequate implementation of safeguards in Hong Kong’s criminal process will be even less effective if mainland-style security agencies are exempted from complying with human rights in line with Hong Kong laws.”

“如果大陆式的安全机构获豁免依照香港法律遵守人权的规定,香港刑事诉讼的保障措施执行情况就会更差。”

Threat of extradition returns

引渡的威胁

Details about the national security law published by Chinese state media last week contain a series of worrying proposals, including a set of frightening loopholes that would enable mainland authorities to detain and try suspects.

中共国官方媒体上周发布的有关《国家安全法》的细节包含一系列令人担忧的提议,其中包括一系列可怕的漏洞,这些漏洞将使大陆当局能够随意拘留和审判嫌疑人。

Among them is a plan to equip Chinese authorities with the power to “exercise jurisdiction” over Hong Kong national security cases “under specific circumstances”. Although the precise meaning of this power is unclear, public statements by senior Hong Kong officials indicate that this could essentially provide mainland authorities with the discretion to take over any case they wish.

其中一项计划是赋予中共国当局“在特定情况下”对危害香港国家安全的案件“行使管辖权”的权力。尽管这种权力的确切含义目前尚不清楚,但香港高级官员的公开声明表明,这实际上可以使内地当局有权接管他们希望接管的任何案件。

There are also questions over whether the law will allow national security detainees to be treated differently from other criminal suspects.

关于法律是否将允许对由于国家安全被拘留者给予与其他犯罪嫌疑人不同的待遇,也存在疑问。

This could include being held in special detention facilities or being detained for indefinite periods of time. It could even involve being extradited to the mainland – a threat that prompted, and was blunted by, the 2019 protest movement.

这可能包括被关押在特别拘留设施中或被无限期拘留。它甚至可能涉及被引渡回大陆——这一威胁引发了2019年的“反送中”抗议运动,并受到挫败。

In addition, the city’s chief executive would get a hand in selecting which judges are able to hear national security cases – potentially impeding the independence of the judiciary.

此外,香港行政长官将协助选择哪些法官能够审理国家安全案件,这可能会阻碍司法机构的独立性。

“The authorities’ assertion that the national security law will only affect a tiny minority is hardly reassuring when the law includes repressive measures that could be used to target literally anyone the government chooses,” said Joshua Rosenzweig.

约书亚-罗森茨韦格说:"当局断言国家安全法只会影响极少数人,这很难让人放心,因为该法包括的镇压措施可能被用来针对政府选择的任何一个人"。

Law pushed through on basis of exaggerated security concerns

打着出于对安全考量的旗号而大力推行恶法

Hong Kong and Chinese officials claim there is an urgent need for security laws to counter the threat of “terrorism” and violence in the city. However, the protesters that marched against the extradition bill in 2019 – and have recently returned on a smaller scale in the wake of COVID-19 – have been overwhelmingly peaceful.

香港和中共国官员声称,迫切需要制定安全法律,以应对城市中“恐怖主义”和暴力的威胁。然而,在2019年“反送中”运动中的示威者(绝大多数的)是和平的。

Seven United Nations human rights expert bodies have expressed concerns about the overly broad and imprecise definitions in the counter-terrorism legislation for Hong Kong.

七个联合国人权事务专门机构对香港反恐立法中的定义过于宽泛和不精确表示关注。

“As well as rushing this national security law through in a manner that avoids all meaningful public or political scrutiny, the authorities are also trying to justify its necessity on the unsubstantiated pretext that Hong Kong must root out a terrorist threat,” said Joshua Rosenzweig.

约书亚·罗森茨威格说:“在避免一切有意义的公共或政治审查的方式来通过这项国家安全法的同时,当局还试图以毫无根据的借口证明香港必须根除恐怖主义威胁,以证明实施该法的必要性。”

“China’s promise that the national security law will respect human rights is worthless without the legal provisions to guarantee and enforce it. If this law is truly aimed at combating genuine national security threats and terrorism, as Beijing claims, then it must include clear exemptions for the peaceful exercise of rights such as freedom of expression, assembly and association.”

“如果没有法律的保障和如何执行法律的规定,中共国关于国家安全法将尊重人权的承诺将是毫无价值的。如北京当局表面上声称的,如果这项法律真正旨在打击对国家安全的威胁和恐怖主义,那么它必须包括对和平行使言论自由,集会和结社自由等权利的明确豁免。”

Chilling echoes of China’s security law

中共国的安全法令人不寒而栗

The so-called crimes of separatism (or “splittism”), subversion, terrorism and “collusion with foreign or overseas powers” to endanger national security will be banned under the law.

该法律将禁止所谓的分裂国家(或“分裂主义”)、颠覆、恐怖主义和“勾结外国或海外势力”危害国家安全的罪行。

These broad, vaguely defined offences are similar to those that feature in China’s own National Security Law, which was enacted in 2015.

这些范围广泛,含糊不清的罪行类似于中共国于2015年制定的《国家安全法》中的罪行。

Amnesty International has documented the systematic and widespread abuse of that law by the Chinese authorities to target human rights defenders. Lawyers, scholars, journalists, pastors and NGO workers have all been convicted of national security offences for simply exercising their freedom of expression and defending human rights.

国际特赦组织记录了中共国当局针对人权维护者有计划地广泛滥用该法律的情况。律师、学者、新闻工作者、牧师和非政府组织工作人员都因仅仅行使其言论自由和捍卫人权而被判犯有国家安全罪。

Background

背景

Once it is signed into law by Chinese President Xi Jinping, the national security law would be listed under Annex III of the Basic Law – Hong Kong’s mini-constitution – after being “promulgated” by the Hong Kong authorities. This means it would become law on the day it is adopted by Hong Kong’s chief executive, without scrutiny by Hong Kong’s Legislative Council – effectively bypassing the local legislature.

香港国家安全法一旦经中共国国家主席习近平签署成为法律,将在香港当局“颁布”后列入《基本法》附件三(香港的微型宪法)中,意味着这项法律被香港行政长官颁布之日就会自行生效,而无需经过香港立法会的审查,从而有效地绕开了地方立法机关。

Hong Kong is guaranteed certain rights under the Basic Law and through being bound by international human rights treaties such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

《基本法》受国际人权公约(例如《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》(ICCPR)和《经济,社会,文化权利国际公约》(ICESCR)等国际条约的约束,保障了香港的某些权利。

The national security law draft reportedly includes a guarantee of respect for human rights, including the ICCPR and ICESCR. But crucially, it appears that national security laws could override these protections.

据报告,国家安全法草案包括尊重人权的保证,其中包括《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》和《经济,社会,文化权利国际公约》。但至关重要的是,国家安全法似乎可以凌驾于这些保护之上。

China’s national security law has a similar provision on respect for human rights, yet this has provided little or no protection to people targeted.

中共国的《国家安全法》对尊重人权也有类似的规定,但这几乎很少或者说没有为目标人群提供保护。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】