Biotechnology Ashley Sutherland

Cloning is a cool and dangerous process. You could bring backĀ peopleĀ and animals from the dead, but at a price because embryos are taken from one human or animal and then injected into another. the process of cloning can harm or even kill the surrogate. There have been rumors circling around the web about the possibilities to bring back the dinosaurs ( think Jurassic Park or Jurassic World). Another semi- wonderful use of cloning is to bring deceased loved ones back from the dead. It is semi- wonderful because the person might act like the complete opposite of who they were before their death. A military man is killed in action serving our country, he is cloned, and turns to crime. There is a high chance that the formerly deceased might have no recollection of their former life ( when Eve repairs WALL-E ant the end of the film).

Did you know that carrots used to be purple, or that bananas used to be green? How did the carrot become orange or the banana yellow? The answer is in Genetically Modified Organisms or GMO. GMOs are used to make the best livestock and produce. They are resistant to disease, pesticides, and other things. GMOs are used in vaccines, HIV/ AIDS research, and shutting down proteins that make disease in insects such as mosquitoes.

A stem cell is a type of cell that can divide to produce offspring cells that continue as stem cells while some cells can become specialized. There is a great interest because of a potential in development for therapies to replace defective or damaged cells. Embryonic stem cells come from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development. Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged cells. However, there is a controversy behind the research. Ever since they were first discovered, the world has been debating on when life begins. Some believe that life starts after fertilization, while others believe that life starts at birth. It doesn't really matter because you need to destroy the unborn creature to extend another life.

DNA Fingerprinting has many names with the same purpose. A method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA. It was first discovered by British geneticist Alec Jeffereys in 1984. DNA had certain sequences. The process consists of obtaining a sample of cells such as skin, hair, or blood. DNA gets extracted from cells and purified. They were then cut at specific points with proteins known as restriction enzymes. Enzymes produced fragments of different sizes. Those fragments were then sorted and placed on a gel that gets subjected to an electric current. The sorted double-stranded DNA fragments are subjected to a blotting technique and splitting into single strands.

A human's personal identity is sacred to them, their families, and sometimes their doctors. However, that person's ancestry can be complicating. Some people might know who their biological father is, while others do not. It varies from person to person but it makes us who we are. Think about your paternal family, and are you noticing a trend of something like eye color. That is only a small thing. When someone commits a crime, their identity might be stripped. Identities can be changed as well for safety. Let's say someone commits a crime unimaginable. Their family would get the government to change their identity to distance themselves from the criminal.

PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction. It is a technique used to make numerous copies of a specific segment of DNA quickly and accurately. PCR is based on the natural processes a cell uses to replicate a new DNA strand. PCR is a three step process that is carried away in repeated cycles which last for five minutes. Step one is denaturation, or separation, of the two strands of the DNA molecule. Step two deals with raising and lowering the temperature of the material. In step three the temperature is raised and a new cycle starts.

A plasmid is an extrachromosomal genetic element that occurs in many bacterial strands. They are circular DNA molecules that replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. A plasmid that is attached to the cell membrane or integrated into the bacterial chromosome is called an episome. Plasmids are extremely valuable tools in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, specifically in the area of genetic engineering.

http://www.stemcellresources.org

http://www.greenpeace.fr/campagnes/cdp

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/stemcell/scissues

http://whyfiles.org/014forsenics/genetic_foren2.html

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/ranginui-the-sky/page-3

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/pcr/

http://askabiologist.asu.edu/plasmids

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