> C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
*This does not include the 34 ATP
> Cellular Respiration is a combustion reaction
# 1. 2 ATP are needed to get the process moving [ activation energy ].
# 2. The break down of glucose happens in the Cytoplasm.
# 3. This develops two 3 carbon compounds [anaerobic and called glycolysis because the glycolysis is lying into pyruvated and released 4 ATP, yet only yields a net of two].
# 4. The metabolic pathway of glycolysis is different and each pyruvic acid becomes an ACETYL Co4 and enters a cycle pathway labled as the Kreb Cycle (must be aerobic).
>Many organisms perform cellular respiration including animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Major Inputs and Outputs
>Glucose +2 NAD + 2 ATP + 4 ADP + 2P
>2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ADP + 4 ATP
# 1. The beginning step is ca combination of steps combining the two-carbon acetyl group [from acetyl Co4] with a four-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six carbon molecule of ctirate. Co4 is bound to a sulfhydryl group (-SH) and diffuses away to eventually combine with another acetyl group. This step is irreversible because it is highly exergonic. The rate of this reaction is controlled by negative feedback and the amount of ATP available. If ATP levels go up, the rate of this reaction go down. If ATP is in a shortage, the rate rise.
# 2. Citrate loses one water molecule and gains another as citrate is converted into its isomer, isocitrate.
# 3 & 4. According to step tree, isocitrate is oxidized, producing a five-carbon molecule, a ketoglutarate, together with a molecule of Co2 and two electrons, which cut back NAD+ to NADH. This stp is also regulated by negative feedback from ATP and NADH and by a positive effect of ADP. Steps three and four are both exidation and decarboxylation steps, which release electrons that reduce NAD+ to NADH and release carboxyl groups that form Co2 molecules. a-Ketoglutarate is the product of step three, and succinyl group is the product of step four. CoA sticks to the succinyl group to form succinyl CoA. The enzyme that catalyzes step for is regulated by feedback inhibition of ATP , sunninyl CoA, anf NADH.
# 5. A phosphate group is subsitituted for coenzyme A, and a high-energy bond is formed. This energy is used in substrate-level phosphorylation [during the conversion of the succinyl group to succinate] to form either guanine triphosphate [GTP] or ATP. There are two forms of the enzyme, called isoenzymes, for this step, depending upon the type of animal tissue in which they are found. One form is found in tissues that use large amounts of ATP, such as heart and skeletal muscle. This form produces APT. The second form of the enzyme is found in tissue that have a high number of anabolic pathways, such as liver. This form produces GPT. GTP is energetically equal to ATP; however, its use is more restricted. in particular, protein synthesis primarily uses GPT.
# 6. Step six is a dehydration process that converts succinate into fumarte. Two hydrogen atomn are transfered to FAD producing FADH2. The energy contained in the electrons of thee atoms is insufficient to reduce NAD+ but adequate to reduce FAD. Unlike NADH, this carrier remains remaina attached to the enzyme and transfers the electrons to the electron transport chain directly. This process is made possible by the localization of the enzyme catalyzing this step inside the inner membrane of the mitichondrion.
# 7. Water is added to fumarate during step seven, and malate is produced. The last step in the citrate acid cycle regenerates oaxloacetate by oxidizing malate.Another molecule of NADH is produced.
>During the cycle, pyruvate is introduced into the mitochondrial matrix, and through oxidation, is metabolizd into adenosine trihosphate, a chemical form of energy.
Major Inputes and Outputs
>2 aceytl CoA, 2 oxaloacetate, 2 ADP + P, 6 NAD+, 2 FAD
> 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH + H+, 2FADH2
# 1. Two electrons are passed from NADH into the NADH dehydrogenase complex. Coupled with this transfer is the pumping of one hydrogen ion for each electron.
# 2. The two electrons are transferred to unbiquinone. Unbiquinone is called a mobile transfer molecule because it moves the electrons to the cytochrome b-c1 complex.
# 3. Each electron is then passed from the cytochrome b-c1 complex to cytochrome c. Cytochrome c accepts each electron at a time. One hydrogen ion is pumped though the complex as each electron is transferred.
# 4. The next major step occurs in the cytochrome oxidase complex. This step requires four electrons. These four electrons interact with molecular oxygen molecule and eight hydrogen ions. The four electrons, four of the hydrogen ions, and the molecular oxygen are used to form two water molecules. The other four hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane.
# 5. The hydrogen pumping steps creates a gradient. the potential energy is the gradient is used by ATP synthase to form ATP sfrom ADP and inorganic phosphates.
The importance of Cellular Resperation
> Cellular respiration gives energy to every living organism. So, cellular respiration is important because it provides the energy for living organism to preform all the other necessary functions to hold life. Most single-celled organisms , such as bacteria , don't need a ton of energy and are able to survive on glycolysis and fermentation. Our ability to talk , think , and walk need enormous amounts of energy which can only provide by aerobic respiration through the Kreb Cycle and the electrician transport chain.
"Cellular Respiration". Biology Laboratory Manual I Cellular Respiration. N.p., n.d. Web 13 Jan 2017
"Kerbs Cycle". Kreb Cycle. N.p., n.d. Web 13 Jan 2017
("Electron Transport Chain" from my notes)