Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (336 - 323 BCE) After the death of Philip, his son Alexander takes over the throne of Macedonia in 336 BCE. Alexander had been tutored by Aristotle, the influence of Aristotle on Alexander can be seen in the way he handled different political problems. Alexander got the title of Alexander the Great because of his excellent military background and his diplomacy with those he conquered. Alexander's legacy also has him spreading Greek culture, knowledge and language to where he conquered. (
Alexander had an impressive military background. When Alexander was just 18 years old he helped win the Battle of Charonea in 338 BCE defeating the Greek allied city-states. Alexander used a military form Phalanx, which was a military formation with heavy infantry all armed with very long spikes or spears. Alexander used this form along with some calvary on horseback. The opposing armies could never keep up and Alexander the Great and his armies never lost a battle, no matter what the odds. ( (Alexander the Great Lecture)
Just two years after Alexander the Great took the throne he was already in control of almost all of Greece. In 334 BCE Alexander took Asia Minor, during the next couple of years he also acquired the Holy Land and Egypt. After conquering Egypt, Alexander founded the city of Alexandria. (Alexander the Great Lecture)
Alexandria, the first of many cities named after Alexander the Great, was founded in 331 BCE when Alexander took over Egypt. While in Egypt and Oracle claimed that Alexander was the son of Ammon, the king of the gods, and that Alexander would take over and rule the world. Alexandria would later become the worlds largest city, this happened after Alexanders death when Ptolemy began his rule over Egypt. It attracted scientists, scholars, philosophers, mathematicians, artists, and historians. Alexandria also became famous for its large library and many great people came and studied or lived in Alexandria. (
Many a great man was born or came to Alexandria such as, Eratosthenes, Archimedes and hero/Heron. Eratosthenes (276 - 194 BCE) calculated the circumference of the earth. Archimedes (287 - 212 BCE) was a famous mathematician and astronomer, he taught others in Alexandria. Hero/Heron (10 - 70 CE) was born and raised in Alexandria. He is given credit for his amazing achievements in engineering and technology. This included the first vending machine, force pump, and a theatre of automated dancing figures and many more. Many works of these and other great men have influenced the world today. All of this came about because Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 331 BCE, this was his legacy. (
Also in 331 BCE Alexander the Great battled with Darius III at Gaugamela, Alexander defeated Darius' army while he fled. Then Alexander moved on to conquer Susa, marching on to Persepolis, Bactria and Sogdianna conquering them with ease. (
Around 329 BCE Alexander adopted the title of Shahan Shah, which means King of Kings. Among the many Persian customs Alexander brought his people was proskynesis, a traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher rank, in this case Alexander himself. Many of Alexanders troops started to become upset by the way Alexander was conforming to the Persian ways, this brought on assassination attempts. Some of Alexander's closest and oldest friends were killed because of this. Alexander married a Persian woman, Roxane, and encouraged all of his troops to marry Persian woman. Sometimes threatening troops that were already married to divorce and marry Persian women. Another concern among Alexanders troops was his drinking habit, apparently he was something of an alcoholic. ( (Alexander the Great Lecture)
After acquiring complete control of Persia in 327 BCE, Alexander decided to try and conquer India. The Indian King of Taxila gave in without a fight, however, the Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes but up much more of a fight but were eventually conquered. Alexander wanted to go on to Ganges and continue to conquer territories but his troops refused, as they were too tired. So they were all sent back Susa. ( (Alexander the Great Lecture)
Upon Alexanders return he found that the people he left in charge had abused their power and he killed them. Alexander also dropped the Persian proskynesis which he had adopted earlier, but he continued to include Persian people and ways into his rule and his armies, which his troops did not like. He also considered himself more Persian than Macedonian. Alexander the Great died at the age of 32 in 323 BCE apparently from a high fever, but others say that it was poison or an assassination. Since Alexander had no heir to the throne only the strongest would succeed him. So his four generals, Cassander, Ptolemy, Antigonus, and Seleucus divided up his empire. ( (Alexander the Great Lecture)


Created with images by tonynetone - "Alexander the Great" • Bradley N. Weber - "The School of Athens by Raphael"

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