Egypt BY: Tanzila and Allen


population and world ranking: 94,666,993 and ranked 16

economy and ranking: Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile Valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypts economy was highly centralized during the rule of former president gamal abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former presidents anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed hisni MUBARAK. GDP- $12,100 and ranking is 23.

unemployment and ranking: rate is 13.1% and ranking is 145.

main industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures.

government type: presidential republic

capitol: cairo

administrative divisions: 27 governates

independence: their independence is February 28 1922 from UK protectorate status.

information about constitution: several previous, latest approved by a constitutional commitee in december 2013, approved by referendum held 14-15 january 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 january 2014.

legal system: mixed legal system based on napolenoic civil and penal law, islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicical review of the constituionality of laws by the supreme constitutional court.

suffrage(voting age): 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

executive branch: The Executive Branch is headed by the President, who chooses the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. According to the Egyptian Constitution, the President must be elected by the Parliament. Once elected, the President serves six consecutive calendar years and can be reelected indefinitely. He has the authority to appoint all the judges of the Supreme Constitutional Court, along with civilian and military judges.

legislative branch: The legislative branch consists of two chambers: the People’s Assembly and the Shura Council. The People’s Assembly has the power to enact laws and approve bilateral and multilateral treaties as well as the national budget. It consists of 454 members and 444 of these members are directly elected. The remaining 10 are appointed by the President. The Shura Council acts in a consulting capacity to the President, the executive branch, and the People’s Assembly. Unlike the People’s Assembly, it does not have any legislative powers. While the President appoints eighty-eight members of the Shura Council, the remaining 174 members of the Shura Council are directly elected by the people.

Judicial branch: The judicial branch monitors and supervises the implementation and enforcement of laws. Judges are appointed for life with a mandatory retirement at the age of seventy.

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