In 30 AD, Jesus Christ at the age of his mid 30's created the teachings of the Gospel. Before he began to teach the Gospel he was a low class artisan, however, he was a carpenter.
After Jesus started to teach his ways, the Jews did not accept him. They say that Jesus did not fulfill the Messiah prophecies and he did not express the personal capability of the Messiah
Jesus was beaten badly by the Jews, they made a crown of thorns and was forced onto his head, they then made him carry the cross he was going to die on. He however, did die of bleeding out. After Jesus had died Apostle Paul implemented them through the ancient world, spreading the religion.
Differences between Christianity, Catholic and Protestants Church
The differences between all the churches are, Christianity believes that god speaks through the bible only. Catholics believe that god not only speaks through the bible but through the pope and church. The Protestants believe that the bible alone is the only source of god's special revelation to mankind teaches us everything that's necessary.
Four complaints that people had against the church
Reformers thought priest and bishops weren't very religious anymore, they felt the priest didn't know basic church teaching, Non- Biblical Teachings, Availability of the scriptures for every person to read and Pope forgiving sins, they thought Jesus could only do that
Why the split
The church split up in the 16th century
- Erasmus, Thomas More, Huldrych Zwingli and Martin Luther saw the corruption and wanted to take action to stop it. However, it led to schism in the all churches
- The church was selling tickets of “forgiveness” from sins for money, it meant that the poor couldn’t buy their way to heaven
- People didn’t understand the sermon because it was in Latin, they walked away not knowing anything
- The church was telling people wrong information, most of the time nothing to do with the bible. They always made people pay the priest from these little “advice”
The consequences of the split
- In 1524-1525 million of peasants rebelled against the nobles
- Many countries followed the split and it lead to religious wars
- The reformation counter-reformation wasn’t a big success, the pope then created new religious orders
- The pope banned certain books, it was ended in 1960’s. the catholic church showed feelings through paintings
Martin Luther was born on November 10, 1483, in Eisleben, Saxony in Germany. He always wanted to become a lawyer, he was going at University of Erfurt, he received a Master of Arts Degree. On July 1505, he had a life changed experience, he was caught in a thunderstorm where he feared for his life, during the storm he had screamed out, "Save me, St. Anne, and I'll become a monk!" he was saved. He had became a monk, which did disappoint his father.
Luther's 95 Thesis
On October 31, 1517 an angry Martin Luther nailed a sheet of paper with 95 theses on the university chapel door. He only intended these to be discussion points, Luther Archbishop Albert Albrecht of Mainz, calling him to end sale of gratification. Disagreement on the power and advantage of indulgences, they meant that the bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by deeds.
- The church summons him to Augsburg in 1518 to argue his position
- The church second response was for Pope Leo X, by 1520, to issue a papal bull declaring Luther’s theses to be practicing religion
- After the Peasants War lead to the Catholic Church forced to show tolerance to the emergence of Lutheranism
- True peace was not established between Catholics and Protestants until the Treat of Hamburg 1648
- Charles ate worms, wanted Martin Luther to appear to recant or to be banished from the empire
- The Pope excommunicated him, because of book burning
Differences between Catholic and Protestants Church
- Tradition; the Protestants didn’t see tradition as equal in authority with the Scriptures and The Roman Catholic Church had a different perspective
- Salvation and Grace; Protestants views justification as specific point where God declares that you are righteous, a point where you enter into Christian life and The Roman Catholic Church views justification as a process depending on the grace you receive by participating in the church
- Priesthood of All Believers; Protectants see the church as having a horizontal structure and The Roman Catholics don’t believe that
- Veneration of the Saints and the Virgin Mary; Roman Catholics believe that see veneration, isn’t praying to the Saints or Virgin Mary, but as praying through them The Roman Catholics believe in holy Water, Celibacy, Nuns and Purgatory and The Protestants believe in Scriptures (GOD) and Catechism (Kids memorize the Bible)
Pope Paul III was who convened the Council of Trent in 1545 to regulate the training of candidates for the priesthood. Martin Luther was summoned before the diet of worms and excommunicated. By the end of the reformation Lutheranism become the state religion throughout much of Germany, Scandinavia and Baltics. The Catholic Church of the counter reformation era grew more spiritual, more literate and more educated. In German because of the reformation they lost 40% of their population
Attempts by the Catholic church to counter the spread of Protestants
- The church did try to respond to the counter but it was weak
- The Jesuits combined the ideas of traditional monastic and discipline with the dedication of teaching and preaching
- They imitated the Dominicans and Franciscans
- For the people that were protesting and with Catholics were punished, tortured and death
- At the end of the reformation Luther, Calvin and the Anabaptists forced every man and women to make a choice
Council of Trent
- Held 3 parts from 1545-1563
- Highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform
- Bologna, northern Italy most important councils
- Followed Luther’s appeal
- Wanted the council to reform the moral abuses to placate the protestants
- Council decreed that both Scripture and tradition were to be equal
- Held up the seven sacraments
- Rejected the Protestants reformation
- Gospel of grace was lost at the Council of Trent
- Increaseed papacy power of the church
The first one establishes in 1184 in southern France, however it goes out into troublesome regions. They question people intensively, issued out punishments, burning at the sake (was a punishments) and they were judicial and tribunals.
The Peace of Augsburg
Peace was arranged between the Lutherans and Catholics. Lutherans wanted to prove that their views were Biblical. However the treaty was weak. The peace caused religious wars stop far at least a period. At the end free cities were supposed to allow both religion to practice.
Number of Christians today
Nearly 8% dropped, from 78.4-70.6 in just seven years. It is indeed growing in many different places around the world because of immigrants. The center of Christianity has shifted from Europe to the global south. It was growing because people did like the churches ways and the church offered equal statues.
Muhammad created this religion at age 40, in 610. Muhammad was first a merchant, he had married a rich women and became a wealthy and respected trader.
Family began to persecute him and his followers. Muhammad and his followers migrated to the town of Yathrib, the religion Islam was accepted.
The Four next Caliphs; Abu Bakr, Uthman, Umar and Ali
Division between Sunni and Shia
Happened in 7th, the argument was over who the next Caliph was. Sunni believed that Abu Bakr was supposed to be it, but Shia believed that Mohammad's cousin was supposed to be it. Sunni wanted to follow the Sunnah (ways of Mohammad) and Shia argued that Ali is the rightful first Caliph.
What they focused on
Sunni focused on the power of God in the physical world and Shia focused on the rewards of the afterlife.
Titles of leader
Sunni: The Rightly Guided Caliphs and Shia: Imam
3 main reasons why they split
- Who was elected the next caliph
- Power Struggle
5 core beliefs (6 Articles of Faith)
- Belief in one God
- Belief in Angles
- Belief in Prophets of God
- Belief in Revealed Books of God
- Belief in Day of Judgment
- Belief in Destiny and Divine Decree
Main ways that Islam had spread
- Spread through trade, conquest and mercenaries
- New territories
- Peaceful evangelism
- The "convert or die" scenario
Current number of Muslims in the world
Is Islam growing or shrinking and why?
It is growing, it has been spreading by permission to spread the religion by war, reconquering lands, no one can leave once they're in and if you are in a country that is following Sharia law, Non-Muslims must pay a large tax.
Also there is high population, high birth rates, low death rates and higher conversion rates.