Biotechnology Shaniya Jackson

Many people first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Artificial cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though. Cloning is to make a identical copy of something, the DNA is identical. Cloning is used presently. The ethical issue is therapeutic cloning, the issue with it is the moral status of the cloned embryo which is created solely for destruction. There's also a ethical issue with reproductive cloning which includes genetic damage to the clone and more.

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/

. They remove a nature somatic cell from an animal then they transfer the DNA of somatic cell into an egg cell, that had its own DNA nucleus removed. Parents with no eggs or sperm can create children that's genetically related. Parents that lose children can have another one with cloning. Animals can be cloned to save species. Cloning problems was cloning children which meant there was an understanding that children can be designed and replicated to the parents wishes. That meant that it would be a lack of uniqueness and it would violate their freedom and individuality. Animal cloning is considered unsafe because 95% of it was ended in failure due to genetic defects. Technology is used to copy DNA to make a genetically identical strand of DNA. Knowing the human genome is very helpful in cloning because knowing the human DNA could help with how to create identical DNA.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/biology-general/cloning

Produced with genes from one thing that is forced into genes of another. It's also used you to make an product better than the original product. GMOs are used presently. An ethical issue is the long term effects of this technology is yet to be seen and we must proceed with caution as practices and guidelines are developed.

http://www.geneticallymodifiedfoods.co.uk/ethical-concerns-gm-foods.html

Genetically modified organisms known as GMOs benefits include modified foods that are resistant to insects, environmental protection and more nutritious foods. The problems include allergic reactions and more. Technology is involved because engineering agriculture crops are intended to use technology to increase yield, profits and etc. Knowing the human genome is helpful when it comes to GMOs that way you can understand what GMOs can harm the human body.

https://www.decodedscience.org/gmo-food-pro-and-con/23179

A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation. The stem cell research is used in the present. Their are ethical issues that involves the destruction human embryos.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726839/

DNA fingerprinting is another term for genetic fingerprinting. It is used in the present time. The ethical issues are the shared nature and ownership of genetic information, limitations of genetic testing, inappropriate applications of genetic testing and the potential for discrimination.

http://dna-fingerprinting.weebly.com/ethical-issues.html

DNA fingerprinting benefits is a scientific technique based on making a profile of specific portions of an individual's DNA to establish identity, for example in paternity or maternity cases or in criminal investigations where biological material is left at a crime scene. DNA fingerprinting uses technology by The AFLP technique which is a powerful DNA fingerprinting technology applicable to any organism without the need for prior sequence knowledge. The protocol involves the selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments of a total digest of genomic DNA, typically obtained with a mix of two restriction enzymes. Knowing the human genome is helpful because it helps figure out how to study the DNA fingerprint of humans.

http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/46432.aspx

A paternity test is a medical test, typically a blood test, to determine whether a man may be the father of a particular child. Paternity test is used in the present. There are two ethical issues whichinvolve the human tissue act DNA testing privacy issues. Benefits of the DNA paternity kit is you can have it done earlier than an amniocentesis test which is a test that's very familiar to most OBs and has a relatively high success rate and can be done within 8 weeks during the pregnancy. the problems with it is, it is an invasive procedure that carries a slight risk of miscarriage. Technology is used to recognize DNA sequencing. Knowing human genome helps to understand what the paternity kit is reading.

https://dnacenter.com/blog/benefits-and-uses-of-dna-paternity-testing/

Gel electrophoresis is used to separate macromolecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. DNA fragments are separated according to their size. Proteins can be separated according to their size and their charge. It is used currently. The ethical issue is it invades privacy because it uses DNA.

https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/2029-gel-electrophoresis

transgenic organism an individual with a genetic modification in every cell while recombinant DNA transferring genes between species. Plasmids is a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes. It is currently used. There is ethical issues but there is no guarantee of safety.

http://knowgenetics.org/transgenic-organisms/

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