Horace Mann, the head of the state board of education in Massachusetts, noticed how important school was and he thought it would solve problems like poverty and crime. The citizens voted to build better schools, and pay higher salaries to teachers with the help of Horace Mann. This didn't solve all of the problems though. Most girls weren't able to attend high school or college.
People started speaking out against slavery. Americans started to think doesn't equality for all mean no slavery. It began during the Revolutionary era, because of the inhuman treatment of slaves. Abolitionist wanted to end slavery. Many like William Lloyd and Angelina & Sarah Grimke spoke out about the inhuman acts of slavery. People also risked their lives working in the Underground Railroad that led slaves to freedom.
Women were not allowed to speak out about political problems. Women did no have the right to vote or hold office. Their money and property belonged to their husbands. Their was no law set to protect woman from the wrath of their husbands. Mott and Stanton hosted a convention for women's rights. This convention marked the start of the women's right movement. Many abolitionist were actively involved in the women's rights movement. Reformers then started to make progress with women's rights. Soon laws were passed.
Efforts of reform came out of religious movements. The movement was the second Great Awakening. Another movement was called Transendentalism, which is the goodness of man. Civil disobedience was what they did by challenging laws.They believed man could reform political parties. Works of writers and artist inspired other types of reform. When Andrew Jackson became president it gave Americans a sense of hope, because Jackson represented the common man.
A Boston school teacher named Dorothea Dix was in for an unpleasant surprise when she agreed to teach a Sunday school class at a jail. She was upset by the living conditions in the jail and how the inmates were treated, especially the mentally ill. They would be put in separate cells in different parts of the jails and they were whipped and beaten. Dix issued a report to the Massachusetts state legislature and they were shocked, so they voted to create new hospitals for the mentally ill.
In the 1820s, the temperance movement was started because of the abuse of alchohol in people of all ages. The temperance movement was a campaign against alchohol. In the 1850s, Maine banned alchohol and a few other states followed. The laws were repealed and the movement got popuylar again in the late 1800s. The fame of the protest shrunk and now we have alchohol in all of the states.