General Relativity
  • General Relativity is Einstein's theory of relativity which was published in 1916.
  • Einstein determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers.
  • The speed of light within a vacuum is the same no matter the speed the observer travels.
  • What we perceive as gravity arises from the curvature of space and time.
  • It's a way to understand the biggest objects in the universe, such as the sun and the Earth, and these things change the geometry of the curvature of space and time.
Quantum Mechanics
  • Predicts chance/probability of one outcome over another.
  • Suggests that the seemingly impossible could be possible.
  • Einstein said, "God did not play dice" and "If [quantum theory] is correct, it signifies the end of physics as a science", implying that he does not support the idea of "chance".
  • Tells us how the things that make up atoms work and how electromagnetic waves like light work.
  • Considered the most precisely tested theory in the history of science.
  • It's a way to understand the smallest things in the universe (subatomic particles).
Four Fundamental Forces
  • The Strong Force: It binds quarks (particles that make up protons and neutrons) together in clusters to make more-familiar subatomic particles. It originates in a property known as color which is a property of quarks and is an essential part of the quark model.
  • The Weak Force: lt is responsible for radioactive decay which plays a large role in nuclear fission. It is stronger than gravity but is only effective over very short distances. It is one of the strongest forces, but because the particles involved are so big, it can only act over short distances.
  • Electromagnetic: It is the interaction of electric currents or fields and magnetic fields. It holds atoms and molecules together and acts between electrically charged particles.
  • Gravity: It is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward one another. This includes planets, stars, galaxies, and more. All forms of energy also cause gravitation and are under the influence of it.
  • It is considered the Theory of Everything and it fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
  • It occurs when the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces are merged into a single force.
  • If unification is realized in nature, then there is the possibility of unification in the early universe in which the fundamental forces are not yet distinct.
String Theory
  • String theory is the theory that everything is made up of tiny vibrating strings of energy.
  • String theory supports the possibility of there being 11 dimensions and it may be able to explain the smallest and the largest things in the universe.
  • attempts to unify the four forces of the universe into one theory.


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