- The 14th Amendment stated that "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law."
- Abraham Lincoln "granted freedom, on 1 January 1863, was given to slaves in states then in rebellion. In conformity with the preliminary proclamation of 22 September 1862, it declared that all persons held as slaves"(Trefousse).
Civil Rights Act:
- African Americans sought fair wages, access to better jobs, and equal opportunities for workplace advancement” (Riggs)