Rock Classification JEVONTE SQUIRES

There are many different kinds of sedimentary rocks throughout the world. These kinds of rocks are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of material at Earth's surface and within bodies of water. In addition sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle in one place.


There are three types of sedimentary rocks which include clastic, chemical and organic. As you should know clastic is your basic rock, while chemical is formed when water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind. Also, organic is formed by any accumulation of sedimentary debris caused by organioc processes.

Location of most sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rocks are mostly found covering a majority of the Earth's upper crust. Where they are formed from the deposition of mud and sand that is buried and compressed to form solid rock, sedimentary rocks usually begin their life underwater, rising to the Earth's surface as the waters dry up.

Sedimentary rock formation begins with igneous, metamorphic, or other sedimentary rocks. When these rocks are exposed at the earth’s surface they begin the long slow but relentless process of becoming sedimentary rock.

Another type of rock is called Igneous rock. Igneous rocks are formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. These rocks can be formed with or without crystallization. either on the surface of the Earth where they are called extrusive or below the Earth's surface where they are called intrusive.

Intrusive igneous rock

Intrusive and extrusive are the 2 main types of igneous rocks. Rocks come in all shapes and sizes, but its location is what makes the rock what it is.

Extrusive igneous rock
Location of Intrusive and Extrusive Rocks

Since these rocks formation rely on its location then depending on where it is formed will determine what kind of rock it is. Either on the surface of Earth where they are called extrusive or below the Earth's surface where they are called extrusive.

Location of Igneous rocks

The rock cycle is the process by which rocks are changed from one form to another. The rock cycle is able to provide Earth continuously with new rocks through the breaking down of old rocks and the hardening of magma to form new ones. The rock cycle starts when hot magma rises to the surface of Earth. Once on the surface, the magma cools and hardens into igneous rocks. Over time wind and water wear down these igneous rocks.

The last kind of rock is called metamorphic. A metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes. Examples of these rock types include marble, slate, gneiss, schist.

There are two types of metamorphic rocks which include foliated and non-foliated. Foliated metamorphic rocks have a layered or banded appearance that is created by exposure to heat and directed pressure. in addition non-foliated metamorphic rocks do not have a layered or banded appearance.

Fiolated metamorphic rock
Non-fiolated metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks can be created deeply below the Earth's surface due to high pressure and high temperature. These rocks are normally found on volcanic mountains or where the temperature can reach and high amount of degrees.

Location of metamorphic Rocks

Any of the three types of rocks can be morphed into metamorphic rocks such as, sedimentary and igneous. If rocks are buried deep in the Earth at high temperatures and pressures, they form new minerals and textures all without melting.


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