Vietnam War by: madison lawrence

Values and beliefs

America started the war between them and Vietnam. Americans had no idea that America started this war. A military personnel, Donald Duncan returning from the war front exposed the skeptical involvement between America and Vietnam, in an essay “The Whole Thing Was A Lie”. The purpose behind this essay was to argue for the U.S to withdrawal. In 1966 Ramparts magazine published an article by Duncan stating that communism was in substitution for democracy and it wasn't doing any justice to either sides.“I know now that there are many types of communism but there are none that appeal to me. In the long run, I don't think Vietnam will be better off under Minh's brand of communism. But it's not for me or my government to decide. That decision is for the Vietnamese.” Duncan explained. Duncan's statement revealed the hidden contradiction of the war, in attempt to defeat communism. Local newspapers also relayed information about the war, sometimes through the publication of soldiers letters from home. Which included intense stories about battles with Viet Cong, tragic killing and confusion along with frustration about military operations.

Tactics

Since Americans found out that America would be going into war against Vietnam they needed tactics. One of the main ones being NLF ( National Liberation Front ) and PAVN ( People’s Army of Vietnam ) battle warfare tactics. These battle tactics were used by the Main Force of the People's Liberation Armed Forces and the NVA (People's Army-Vietnam) to defeat their American and South Vietnamese. https://youtu.be/Yl8-dAPCQmQ

American Tactics included; hi-tech war, using B52 bombers, artillery, helicopters, napalm and defoliants (Agent Orange). This killed many innocent civilians, and failed to stop the Vietcong guerrillas and search and destroy.
American troops were sent on patrols, then supported by air and artillery when attacked. This made the soldiers demoralized when realizing they were being used just as bait.

Home Front

The draft was a new concept for the American military. Prior to the draft, serving as a soldier was a volunteer opportunity. However, the draft, or selective service, provided a way for the government to require citizens to serve.
The people of America were very unsupportive of the Vietnam War. The nation had just begun to calm down from the aftermath of the Second World War, and life was just beginning to return to normal. Citizens did not support the draft, and they believed that it was morally and politically wrong for the United States to be involved in Vietnamese affairs. This oppositions caused an outbreak of riots, anti-war organizations, and tension between citizens themselves.
Give love a chance ( John Lennon ) the song was written in John Lennon’s “bed in” honeymoon in canada when he was asked by a reporter what was his goal for the “bed in”
Goodnight saigon (Billy Joel); Sam stone. ( John Prine); Your Flag Decal Won't Get You Into Heaven Anymore (John Prine)

For a while antiwar music was limited due to the fact that in the beginning of the war people were still supportive of the soldiers being in Vietnam. But over time president Lyndon B. Johnson kept sending more troops to Vietnam to fight and that caused many Americans to become angry. Benefits of music: Jimi Hendrix; Famous rock and roll artist used his platform to represent the crying soldiers by playing unorthodox notes in the Star Spangled Banner at the Woodstock event. Music also helped give the soldiers hope.

Propaganda

the deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc; the particular doctrines or principles propagated by an organization or movement.

The propaganda in Vietnam was used in a positive way. Most of Vietnam supported this war. While on the other hand Americans did not agree with drafting, or the Vietnam war in general, but the government went against everything Americans thought.

Protest

History.com states that "The movement against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began small–among peace activists and leftist intellectuals on college campuses–but gained national prominence in 1965, after the United States began bombing North Vietnam in earnest. Anti-war marches and other protests, such as the ones organized by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), attracted a widening base of support over the next three years, peaking in early 1968 after the successful Tet Offensive by North Vietnamese troops proved that war’s end was nowhere in sight."https://youtu.be/G3slnPIh_oU

Economics:

The Vietnam war negatively affected the American economy. The requirements of the war strained the nation’s production capacities, that lead to factories that were initially were used for producing goods turned into factories that were being used to make military gear and equipment. All funds were going overseas, which contributed to unfair payments and a dollars worth decreasing. The U.S. had spent $168 billion during the war, but the real cost of the war impacted the economy. In 1969 President Johnson decided to introduce a 10% income tax surcharge, which also slowed down the economy.

Government And foreign policy

Foreign policy makers

For government and foreign policy all communications during the war on the Vietnam war and government were recorded Including: associated press, and other medias. the CIA, the State Department, the EPA, the military, the Kissinger telephone conversation transcripts on world affairs, and national security files from the, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Ford administrations.

The Draft

the draft was abolished in 1973, men of draft age (between 18-25 years) still have to register with the Selective Service System within 30 days of the 18th birthday. During the Vietnam War, about two-thirds of American troops were volunteered, the rest were selected for military service through the drafts. All American men in draft-age were collected by the Selective Service System. The rate for Americans that fought in Vietnam included 25% poor, 55% percent working-class, 20% middle-class men, but very few came from upper-classes families. Many soldiers came from rural towns and farming communities.

Troops protesting, lottery

Family Roles

Americans would watch the Vietnam war from home.
A South Vietnamese woman mourns over the body of her husband, found with 47 others in a mass grave near Hue, Vietnam in April of 1969.
Vietnam. Family escaping American bombs! 1965

https://youtu.be/wShCJNT1z2E

Reintegration into society

Many veterans have been known to be traumatized from fighting in the war and can have dramatic consequences for the mental health. Veterans also had a problem reintegrating into society because of civilian beliefs.https://youtu.be/E4rHLSrlAB0

Purpose

The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam. ... The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam.

Race equality

https://youtu.be/RB-1nDmHJ_8

The Vietnam War saw the highest proportion of blacks ever to serve in an American war. During the height of the U.S. involvement, 1965-69, blacks, who formed 11 percent of the American population, made up 12.6 percent of the soldiers in Vietnam.African Americans have served in every war waged by the United States. Throughout the nation's history, African American soldiers, sailors, and Marines have contributed conspicuously to America's military efforts. From the Civil War through the Korean War, segregated African American units, usually officered by whites, performed in both combat and support capacities. In 1948 President Harry Truman ordered the military establishment to desegregate. Although the Navy and Air Force accomplished integration by 1950, the Army, with the vast majority of African American servicemen, did not achieve desegregation until after the Korean conflict. Vietnam, then, marked the first major combat deployment of an integrated military and the first time since the turn of the century that African American participation was actually encouraged.

Work cited: History.com; Pinster; Google images; YouTube; Vietnamwar.org

Credits:

Created with images by manhhai - "Vietnam war 1972"

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