Over-fishing causing penguin population to continue to decline
As fishing efforts around the globe have multiplied several fold over the last few decades, penguins are now competing with people for enough food. The large scale harvesting of anchovy and sardine stocks have directly reduced the prey available to many penguin species including Macaroni and Chinstrap penguins in the South Atlantic. Combined with the effects of climate change on the locations of fish stocks, reduced food availability leads to higher starvation rates, increased vulnerability to disease and lower breeding success.
Thousands of penguins are also killed annually when caught in fixed fishing nets.
A couple solutions to over-fishing would be to create more marine protected areas and to stop trawling.