Endomembrane by jade figueroa

What is it?

The endomembrane system (endo- = “within”) is a group of membranes and organelles in eukaryotic cells that works together to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins. It includes a variety of organelles, such as the nuclear envelope and lysosomes, which you may already know, and the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, which we will cover shortly.
The Nucleus - Powerhouse of cell
a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells; the command center of our cells. It contains our chromosomes and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life.

Plants and animals are the only organisms with the organelle.

Some cells within the organism are multinucleated; have more than one nucleus. For eample: Skeletal cells

Diseases Associated with the Nucleus?

One of the most well known disease associated with the nucleus is Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a condition that chiefly affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) and heart (cardiac) muscle. Among the earliest features of this disorder are joint deformities called contractures, which restrict the movement of certain joints. The disease is dominant and happens when the nuclear envelope has a deffect in its regulation of genes.
Scottish botanist Robert Brown is credited with the discovery of the nucleus. In 1831, he presented his findings in a paper to the Linnaean Society. He had observed opaque spots in plant tissue and realised they were a key component of cells. He coined the term nucleus which is still in use today.

Ribosomes

a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
  • Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes: bacteria, plants, animals, fungi, and protists.
  • They are the most prolific organelle in a cell

Ribosomal Diseases

These are primarily due to errors with ribosomal proteins or the genes that code for them. With a pivotal role in the human body, anything that disrupts the function of ribosomes (their ability to make proteins) has potentially serious and sometimes fatal consequences.
  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia - increased risk of several serious complications related to their malfunctioning bone marrow. Specifically, they have a higher-than-average chance of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a disorder in which immature blood cells fail to develop normally.
  • Schwachman-Diamond syndrome - a rare congenital disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal abnormalities, and short stature.
  • Dyskeratosis congenita - irreversible degeneration of skin tissue, and congenita means inborn. First described in the medical literature in 1906, dyskeratosis congenita was originally thought to be a skin disease that also affects the nails and the mouth.
  • Cartilage hair hypoplasia - is an inherited condition that causes an affected person to have an extremely small stature

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Fungi, Animal, and Plant cells contain this organelle and is more prolific in cells rather than Smooth Er.

Inside the ER, the proteins fold and undergo modifications, such as the addition of carbohydrate side chains. These modified proteins will be incorporated into cellular membranes—the membrane of the ER or those of other organelles—or secreted from the cell.

Diseases Caused by Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

A malfunction of the ER stress response caused by aging, genetic mutations, or environmental factors can result in various diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorder, which are collectively known as 'conformational diseases'. In this review, I will summarize recent progress in this field. Molecules that regulate the ER stress response would be potential candidates for drug targets in various conformational diseases.

Smooth ER

Fungi, Animal, and Plant cells contain this organelle and is less prolific in cells rather than Rough Er.
  • Synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones
  • Detoxification of medications and poisons
  • Storage of calcium ions
In pancreatic cells the smooth ER produces insulin; a defect here is responsible for some forms of diabetes. Liver cells have smooth ER which breaks down drugs and toxic chemicals and metabolizes glycogen. Steroidal cells in the gonads use their smooth ER to metabolize intercellular steroids and produce a final hormone. Thus defects in SER should affect all these functions.
The endoplasmic reticulum was discovered in 1945 by researchers Ernest Fullman, Keith Porter and Albert Claude. The endoplasmic reticulum is separated into two categories. The parts of the organelle with ribosomes on the surface are called rough and areas without ribosomes are smooth.

Golgi Apparatus

Sorting, tagging, packaging, and the distribution of lipids and proteins takes place in the Golgi apparatus (Golgi body), an organelle made up of flattened discs of membrane.
The organisms that have this organelle are animals and plants

Animal cells tend to have fewer and larger Golgi apparatus. Plant cells can contain as many as several hundred smaller versions. The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids (fats) from the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

It is an important feature of such neurodegenerative conditions as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases, as well as heart disease and diabetes.
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement (called ataxias), or mental functioning (called dementias). A disease that the Golgi Body causes is Achondrogenesis. This is a group of severe disorders that affect cartilage and bone development. There are three types of Achondrogenesis- Types IA, IB and II. All of these types are phenotypically similar and lethal. It is caused by a defect in the micro tubules of the Golgi Apparatus.
Something awesome? In animal cells, the Golgi body undergoes disintegration at the time of mitosis; it is again formed at the time of telophase. In plant cells, the Golgi body does not undergo this kind of transformation and thus, remains intact.

Mitochondria

Many cells do not have mitochondria. It is only found in eukaryotes, organisms with relatively large, complex cells. On the other hand, prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria.
Your fat cells have the most mitochondria. They store a lot of energy, which allows them to respond quickly

Mitochandrial Syndrome

This is the most common disease that is associated with the mitochondria. If any disfunction or error happens within the mitochondria, the release of ATP and energy will be flawed. As well as, poor growth, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.

Let's Talk About Plants

Chloroplast - found only in plants and photosynthetic algae. (Humans and other animals do not have chloroplasts.) The chloroplast's job is to carry out a process called photosynthesis.

What is Photosynthesis?

Light energy from the sun is collected and used to build sugars from carbon dioxide. The sugars produced in photosynthesis may be used by the plant cell, or the predators of that plant (herbivores), such as humans. The energy contained in these sugars is harvested through a process called cellular respiration, which happens in the mitochondria of both plant and animal cells.

Only Plant Cells and Photosynthetic algae. They are prolific due to the fact that they are so essential to plant's survival.

Diseases for Chloroplasts?

Plant mutations in chloroplast DNA sometimes lead to a white phenotype, indicating a lack of the green photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll.
Chloroplasts are disk-shaped cells with a diameter of about 10 micrometers and a thickness of 1 micrometer. This shape makes them more efficient in absorbing light of varying wavelengths. - Mukulika Mukherjee

Vacuoles

The central vacuole is found in only plant cells. It is considered the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and functions to hold materials and wastes. It also functions to , as well as, maintain the proper pressure within the plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing plant.

They made of membranes with inorganic or organic molecules inside, such as enzymes. They have no set shape or size, and the cell can change them as it wants and prolific in plant organisms, as well as, animals. On the other hand, vacuole is the site for storing unwanted materials in an animal cell. However, in animal cells, vacuoles are generally small.

Danon's Disease

Danons disease is cause by mutations in the LAMP 2 gene. When there are mutations with this gene then the lysosomes and the autophagic vacuole fuse very slowly. By slowly fusion this allows the number of autophagic vacuoles to increase substantially. If there is a large amount of autophagic vacuoles then this leads to the breakdown of muscles cells which is shown in Danons disease. Males with Danons disease usually die at the young age of 19; while females usually die at the age of 31.
In a single-celled organism like amoeba, digestion of the engulfed food particles takes place in the vacuoles.
The food vacuole stores food temporarily until the organism needs it

Flagellum

The function of the organelle is to help cells move. Therefore, are very prolific. If it weren't for flagellum interaction and movement would not be happening. They are found in all three domains of the living world: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota, also known as protists, plants, animals, and fungi. While all three types of flagella are used for locomotion, they are structurally very different.
  • Human windpipe cells and some lung cells have cilia to clean the respiratory system of breathing hazards.
  • Fish have cilia to help bring water through the gills.
  • Many types of sperm have flagella to help them move.
helically shaped structures containing the protein flagellin. The base of the flagellum (the hook) near the cell surface is attached to the basal body enclosed in the cell envelope. The flagellum rotates in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, in a motion similar to that of a propeller.

At least 10 protein components of the bacterial flagellum share homologous proteins with the type-three secretion system (TTSS), hence one likely evolved from the other. Because the TTSS has a similar number of components as a flagellar apparatus (about 25 proteins), which one evolved first is difficult to determine.

Cillia

Cilia are slender, microscopic, hair-like structures or organelles that extend from the surface of nearly all mammalian cells (multiple or single). They are primordial.
  • Motile cilia are characterized by a typical ’9+2’ architecture with nine outer microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules (e.g bronchi).
  • Primary cilia appear typically as single appendages microtubules on the apical surface of cells and lack the central pair of microtubules.

Dysfunction or defects in motile and primary cilia are now understood to underlie a number of devastating genetic conditions. It is called, ciliopathies.

Over 20 ciliopathies have been identified and more are suspected
  • Joubert syndrome
  • Orofaciodigital syndrome.
  • Leber's congenital amaurosis.
  • Bardet–Biedl syndrome.
  • Alström syndrome.
  • Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.
  • Ellis van Creveld syndrome.
  • Sensenbrenner syndrome.
So basically... congenital fibrocystic diseases of the liver and pancreas, diabetes, obesity and skeletal dysplasias

Lysosome

contains digestive enzymes and acts as the organelle-recycling facility of an animal cell. It breaks down old and unnecessary structures so their molecules can be reused.

Undergoes phagocytosis - which digests foreign material from outside of the cell. It engulfs the pathogen. They contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.

Lysosomes are found in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. They are so common in order absorb food, they need the enzymes found in lysosomes in order to digest and use the food for energy.

Lysosomal Storage Disease

Lysosomal storage diseases are inherited metabolic diseases . In order for this to happen, an abnormal build-up of various toxic materials in the body's cells occurs due to enzyme deficiencies.

Aspartylglucosaminuria: Patients appear normal for several months after birth. but, then have infections, diarrhea, and hernias. Later, there may be a gradual coarsening of facial features, an enlarged tongue (macroglossia) and enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly).

Works Cited:

"Absorbing Facts About Chloroplast You May Not Have Known Before." Buzzle. Buzzle.com, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

Arnold, Paul. "Ribosome Disorders: What Happens When Ribosome Functions Go Wrong?" Bright Hub. N.p., 01 Dec. 2009. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

"Flagella." Study.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

"Lysosomal Storage Disorders - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)." NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

Nakate, Shashank. "Interesting Facts and Vital Functions of the Golgi Apparatus." Buzzle. Buzzle.com, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

"Organelle Problems." Organelle Problems. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2016.

Sandhyarani, Ningthoujam. "Vacuole Facts." Buzzle. Buzzle.com, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.

Waters, Aoife M., and Philip L. Beales. "Ciliopathies: An Expanding Disease Spectrum." Pediatric Nephrology (Berlin, Germany). Springer-Verlag, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2016.

Created By
Jade Figueroa
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Credits:

Created with images by Calsidyrose - "Microscope" • Iqbal Osman1 - "bacilli under microscope" • thekirbster - "Nucleus" • eLife - the journal - "Multi-coloured representation of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to emetine (in cyan spheres)" • blakespot - "tetanus shot time" • biology flashcards - "Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum" • FotoshopTofs - "microbiologist scientist pathologist" • biology flashcards - "Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum" • TesaPhotography - "diabetes finger glucose" • NIAID - "MERS Coronavirus Particles" • ZEISS Microscopy - "Algal Golgi body, 3D reconstruction" • Christian_Birkholz - "flowers flower fiore" • Chiemsee2016 - "puppy golden retriever dog" • IsaacMao - "Brain" • ~Pawsitive~Candie_N - "smile" • biology flashcards - "Mitochondria" • NICHD NIH - "Mitochondria" • nationalrural - "pig" • h0lydevil - "Green" • Couleur - "sun flower flower flowers" • Mr B's Photography - "Leaf" • pallavi_damera - "Food cooked by me :)" • Unsplash - "audience concert music" • mugwumpian - "shrug" • PublicDomainPictures - "adult baby background"

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