Interactions CHRISTOPHER STALEY - 14556106

In this Adobe Spark Page i will cover my interactions with the different technology's explored in the workshops. These technology's are: Projection Mapping, Augmented reality and Virtual reality (AR & VR) and finally interactivity through Micro-controllers.

Projection Mapping

Projection Mapping uses everyday video projectors, but instead of projecting on a flat screen (e.g. to display a PowerPoint), light is mapped onto any surface, turning common objects of any 3D shape into interactive displays. More formally, projection mapping is the display of an image on a non-flat or non-white surface.

The first real world commercial use of projection mapping was featured in Disney Land’s Haunted Mansion in the 1960’s. It was referred to as 'video mapping spacial augmented reality'. The technology consists of content, a projector and an object to project onto. The content can be created on the computer, or as it was made in the 1960’s, on Super 8mm film. The uses for projection mapping are endless and many different examples can be seen in the video provided above.

The software to create projection mapping displays has become more accessible, due to the cost decreasing and technology increasing, allowing individuals and companies to experiment with it more, creating more interest and awareness for this type of media. This technology allows for ideas and more diverse advertising campaigns to become a reality as this gives an inventive way of making ideas happen.

When something is projection mapped onto a building it enhances rather than defaces the architecture it's projected onto. The sheer scale can be breathtaking and the illusion of everyday and static objects around us becoming animate and playfully reworked can be incredibly exciting. Below i have placed some of my favorite examples of projection mapping that are stunning and breathtaking and show just how amazing and powerful this technology can be.

In September 2015, O2 joined forces with Projection Artworks to create the world's largest projection mapping project and celebrate the Rugby World Cup. Making use of 68 projectors and more than 122 moving head light fixtures, the roof of the venue was transformed into the English rose emblem. According to O2, the show could be seen from space. This just goes to show the mass scale of which projection mapping can be used and to be able to create something that can be seen from space is in itself a great achievement.

Using two walls, a treadmill, and some nifty projection, director Filip Sterckx creates a virtual world for the Willow's latest music video. As with most projection mapping it's the technique that charms here. Singer Pieter-Jan Van Den Troost gropes at doors that aren't really there, trots on the spot down imaginary stairs, and kneels pretending to be paddling in the sea. It's all surprisingly lo-tech, and all the better for it.

Light Harvest assembled a whole team of artists for this unusual mapping for Manhattan Bridge. The animation makes great use of the heavily rusticated facade of the bridge but where it really shines is in the tunnels underneath. The entire curved ceiling becomes animated, when entering the tunnel the audience becomes immersed in the projection.

Above is one of my most favorite uses of projection mapping. For the 2016 opening ceremony for the League Of Legends world championship, they had a giant 3D projection mapped animation that made it appear that the elements that were being shown were truly there. I find myself re-watching the opening ceremony time and time again because of how memorizing it is. Projection mapping is a piece of technology that i feel will not become redundant for many years to come.

In the real world outside of marketing and advertising, projection mapping can be used as another version of interaction combined with motion sensors, removing the need for items that would take up your personal space. A perfect example and something I am most likely to purchase at a later date is a projection mapped keyboard and mouse.

Being able to link up with a phone or tablet and turning any surface into a keyboard is a revolutionary idea. Removing the need to hold the device in your hands and said hands getting in the way, it makes the tablet into a portable PC and keyboard, taking notes will never be the same way again.

Company's are jumping on the projection mapping bandwagon and one of the most noticeable ones is Lenovo with their "Smart Cast" technology. Taking the concept of projecting a keyboard by taking it one step further and projecting a fully interactive phone where you can even play games like Fruit Ninja on any surface.

From the first workshop we had that discussed projection mapping i was immediately hooked. Being able to get hands on with the technology i found it relatively easy to use and enjoyed projecting different things onto the mini model city and i just pictured it if it was full scale and how awesome that would look. As the technology for projection mapping is becoming more available and accessible i can see myself picking up the technology in a few years and creating something that can be projected onto my house or even a star system inside my room. Projection is the closest thing we currently have to holograms and before we get to that point projection mapping will dominate the market.

Samsung Gear VR
Me using the htc vive in Workshop 2
Augmented Reality


Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. Boeing researcher Thomas Caudell coined the term augmented reality in 1990, to describe how the head-mounted displays that electricians used when assembling complicated wiring harnesses worked. One of the first commercial applications of AR technology was the yellow "first down" line that began appearing in televised football games sometime in 1998. Today, Google glass and heads-up displays in car windshields are perhaps the most well-known consumer AR products, but the technology is used in many industries including healthcare, public safety, gas and oil, tourism and marketing.

Augmented reality apps are written in special 3D programs that allow the developer to tie animation or contextual digital information in the computer program to an augmented reality "marker" in the real world. When a computing device's AR app or browser plug-in receives digital information from a known marker, it begins to execute the marker's code and layer the correct image or images.

AR applications for smartphones typically include global positioning system (GPS) to pinpoint the user's location and its compass to detect device orientation. Sophisticated AR programs used by the military for training may include machine vision, object recognition and gesture recognition technologies.

One of the most well known implementations of AR is in the highly popular mobile app name "Pokemon GO!" By using the camera attached to every mobile device, it allows for Pokemon to appear in the real world. With the additional use of the GPS inside of a phone, the app uses google maps and turns real world locations into Pokestops that users can walk to and claim in return for in game items. Ah, Gamification at its finest.

Virtual reality in essence is the computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional image or environment that can be interacted with in a seemingly real or physical way by a person using special electronic equipment, such as a helmet with a screen inside or gloves fitted with sensors. Virtual reality is a way of tricking the senses into thinking we are a part of or seeing something that is not actually there. If an implementation of virtual reality manages to get the combination of hardware, software and sensory synchronicity just right it achieves something known as a sense of presence. Where the subject really feels like they are present in that environment.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words, our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality that isn’t really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real. Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

Me Using the HTC Vive in the second workshop. Photo Credit - Chirstie McBride

Within the second workshop where we got to experiment with both Augmented and Virtual reality, i enjoyed Virtual reality much more. Whilst Augmented reality is a good device to be able to picture something like what furniture would look like in a certain room or even bringing a card game to life. Virtual reality takes over our senses and i found myself forgetting where i was some of the time and had to be very cautious not to bump into any of the sensors. We also got to get hands on with some early versions of Virtual reality with the Oculus Rift VR headset, the difference between effect was much greater as the Oculus Rift only tracks head movement whilst the HTC Vive tracks full body movement. One downside of the virtual reality headsets for me was that they didn't support people who wear glasses very well and when wearing them without glasses, the curved lenses of the headset were causing strain to my eyes.

The real world applications for Augmented reality are already been taken into affect as seen with "Pokemon GO!". But also, progress is being made towards augmented reality being used in the design and creation of buildings and structures. A team at Bentley Systems is looking to change the way the construction industry operates. As it stands now, most construction is very analog. Buildings may be designed with advanced 3D tools, but it all eventually ends up as old-fashion blueprints. Working off of those blueprints is time consuming, since builders have to refer to them constantly throughout construction, slowing things down. Imagine if you could see the blueprints overlayed on the construction site right in front of you.

By having a heads up display, you always have blueprints at your fingertips, literally. These can also be supplemented with detailed instructions on how a specific piece of construction should be done. Bentley isn’t stopping at building construction, they also have some ideas to help with excavation as well.

In terms of Virtual reality, one of the first things that came to mind for me was the use of VR for surgery, using a virtual reality headset, doctors would be able to see what a camera inserted into a body is seeing much better and navigate to that nasty tumor more effectively. This idea is already being implemented into the real world. Surgeon Dr Shafi Ahmed became one of the first to offer a live virtual surgery experience in April 2016 at the Royal London hospital. Some 5,000 people in 14 countries tuned in to watch the operation to remove a tumour. Now the start-up he co-founded, Medical Realities, is launching Virtual Surgeon as a product, hoping that such surgery can reduce the cost of training doctors, reach a much wider audience and ultimately "democratise medicine".

Little Bits

Connecting Two worlds

'Arduino' is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.

The hardware and software is open source – the schematics are available online, so if you don’t want to purchase a pre-made Arduino, you are free to buy the individual components and make it yourself. There are even clones available that function in exactly the same way. Whilst i was not present for the final workshop, with the slides provided on blackboard and conducting my own research i was able to get an understanding of how Arduino circuits work and wish i was not ill during the day that the workshop was ran.

I think that Arduino kits are a really cool conecpt to help users understand electronics more, as from being able to understand the basics of circuits, you are able to create some really cool contraptions. With a Arduino kit, it is even possible to create a Mini 3-D Printer which i think is really cool. Circuits are used in most modern technology but it is cool to see the tech still being developed, becoming smaller and more user friendly

Littlebits is like the child friendly version of Arduino. LittleBits is a platform of easy-to-use electronic building blocks that empower you to invent anything, from your own remote controlled car, to a smart home device. The Bits snap together with magnets, no soldering, no wiring, no programming needed.

With this technology, the company behind Littlebits make circuit building and creation accessible to everyone. By creating, simple, user friendly kits that require very little effort to make them work. I think something like littlebits is great to pull away the younger generation from their computer games and phones and to get the experimenting. Something like this could even set a child down a career path in electronics by finding enjoyment in something they've never seen before. The technology also allows for companies to create cheaper prototypes of a product for a demonstration.

I can see the technology of little bits being used to create more concealed versions of modern technology that can be mass produced with little production costs. For Example, one issue in today's world is the elderly living on their own and loved ones being worried. The technology can be used to create a small alert button for whenever the elderly person has fallen over or hurt themselves. The circuit can send a text message to a loved one alerting them to the issue.

Created By
christopher staley

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