Cause 1 Europeans want to find a water route to Asia the spice island because the Spanish cut off all know routs to the islands. Also the road to china (where all the spices are at) was very long and dangerous.
Cause 2 Europeans want resources so they sail out to find other lands with more and better resources. They want to explore for something better out there where they dont know. To find resources that they dont have or find new ones.
Effect 1 Christopher Columbus sailed to the Caribbean islands when he explored the land he found people who he thought where form India. But he was in the Americas he claimed the land to be his and took the Indians in cages and there gods and god.
Effect Columbus arrived and found that the land was full of resources and the ground was rich with many fruit trees and plants like sugar. there was many minerals like gold and silver, there was many trees for building. when he returned back to England the king wanted more and wanted to start a trade route.